Glossary

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3' end

The end of a nucleic acid chain containing a free hydroxyl (-OH) group.

3' end

The end of a nucleic acid chain containing a free hydroxyl (-OH) group.

3' end

The end of a nucleic acid chain containing a free hydroxyl (-OH) group.

5' end

The end of a nucleic acid chain containing a free prosphate (-PO4) group.

5' end

The end of a nucleic acid chain containing a free prosphate (-PO4) group.

5' end

The end of a nucleic acid chain containing a free prosphate (-PO4) group.

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A

ABC

Abstinence/ Be faithful/ Condoms an approach to HIV prevention: encouraging abstinence from sexual activity; being faithful if in a sexual relationship; and the use of condoms during sexual encounters

ABO/Rhesus

These are the names of blood types/groups that are important in blood transfusion and during pregnancy and delivery of the baby.

Abortion

A medical procedure used to end a pregnancy and cause the end of the fetus.

Abortion

A medical procedure used to end a pregnancy and cause the end of the fetus.

Abortion

The termination of a pregnancy through the expulsion of the fetus from the uterus. Any pregnancy that ends before 22 weeks. A miscarriage is sometimes termed a 'spontaneous abortion'.

Abrogation

To abolish by authoritative action and/or to treat as nonexistent.

Abruption

Tearing away, detachment, or separation (usually refers to the placenta).

Abruption / Abruptio Placentae

Partial or complete separation of the placenta from the uterus before delivery. It happens in 0.8 - 1.0% of all pregnancies and has a high recurrence rate. Contractions are usually present. Bleeding is also present in approximately 80% of patients. Factors that have been associated with abruption include maternal hypertension, advanced maternal age, maternal smoking, cocaine use, and blunt external trauma to the mother.

Abscess

A collection of pus formed as the product of infection.

Absolute CD4 Cell Count

The number of CD4 cells in a cubic millimeter (mm3)

Absolute CD4 Cell Count

The number of CD4 cells in a cubic millimeter (mm3)

Absolute CD4 Cell Count

The number of CD4 cells in a cubic millimeter (mm3)

Absolute Risk

A statement of the magnitude of disease in a sample or population, usually estimated by disease incidence.

Abstinence

The total avoidance of sexual intercourse between partners.

Abstinence

The total avoidance of sexual intercourse between partners.

Abzymes

A common name for catalytic antibodies (antibodies engineered to catalyze a chemical reaction).

Accident

An unplanned event that results in harm to people, damage to property or loss to process.

acneiform

Refers to an appearance similar to acne. Acne is a general term used for eruptive disease of the skin.

ACPR

Associates for Community and Population Research

ACTG

Abbreviation for AIDS Clinical Trials Group.

Active Immunity

Protection from a disease as a result of previous exposure to the disease-causing infectious agent or antigen. The protection can be a result of having had the disease or having received a vaccine to prevent getting the disease. Active immunization is the process by which a person is inoculated with an antigen to encourage the immune system to mount an immune response, e.g., by producing antibodies.

Active labor

Part of the first stage of labor when the cervix dilates from three to seven centimeters. Active labor lasts an average of two to four hours. The contractions during active labor are strong, long (40 to 60 seconds each), and frequent (three to four minutes apart).

Acute effect

A change that occurs in the body within a relatively short time (minutes, hours, days) following exposure to a substance.

Acute HIV Infection (or acute retroviral syndrome)

The period of rapid viral replication immediately following exposure to HIV. An estimated 80 to 90 percent of individuals with primary HIV infection develop an acute syndrome, due to a cellular immune response that takes place before the immune system has had time to produce antibodies. This syndrome is characterized by flu-like symptoms of fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, headache, myalgia, and sometimes rash. Following primary infection, seroconversion and a broad HIV-1 specific immune response occur, usually within an average of two to three weeks after transmission of HIV.

Acute HIV Infection (or acute retroviral syndrome)

The period of rapid viral replication immediately following exposure to HIV. An estimated 80 to 90 percent of individuals with primary HIV infection develop an acute syndrome, due to a cellular immune response that takes place before the immune system has had time to produce antibodies. This syndrome is characterized by flu-like symptoms of fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, headache, myalgia, and sometimes rash. Following primary infection, seroconversion and a broad HIV-1 specific immune response occur, usually within an average of two to three weeks after transmission of HIV.

Acute HIV Infection (or acute retroviral syndrome)

The period of rapid viral replication immediately following exposure to HIV. An estimated 80 to 90 percent of individuals with primary HIV infection develop an acute syndrome, due to a cellular immune response that takes place before the immune system has had time to produce antibodies. This syndrome is characterized by flu-like symptoms of fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, headache, myalgia, and sometimes rash. Following primary infection, seroconversion and a broad HIV-1 specific immune response occur, usually within an average of two to three weeks after transmission of HIV.

Adaptive Immune Response

Immune system activation following exposure to a specific pathogen.

Adeno-Associated Virus

A non-pathogenic virus that may be used as a vector or delivery vehicle in genetic engineering to insert genes into cells; used in HIV vaccine development.

ADHD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; ADHD refers to a chronic disorder that initially manifests in childhood and is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention.

Adherence

The extent to which the patient continues the agreed-upon mode of treatment or intervention as prescribed.

Adherent Cells

Immune cells (such as dendritic cells and macrophages) with the property of adhering to tissue culture flasks. This property allows the cells to be separated and purified.

Adherent Cells

Immune cells (such as dendritic cells and macrophages) with the property of adhering to tissue culture flasks. This property allows the cells to be separated and purified.

Adherent Cells

Immune cells (such as dendritic cells and macrophages) with the property of adhering to tissue culture flasks. This property allows the cells to be separated and purified.

Adipocyte

A fat-containing cell found in adipose tissue

Adipose

Made of or relating to fat. Adipose tissue is connective tissue in which fat is stored and which has the cells distended by droplets of fat.

Adjusted Rate

An expression of the predicted number of health events within a standard population, defined by one or more variables not under study, and used to control for effects mediated by such variables. An example of adjusted rate would be a statement such as, ""The overall death rate is 2.2 deaths per 1,000 persons; the age-adjusted death rate in individuals aged 15-24 is 6.2 deaths per 1,000 persons."" Adjustment is the technique used after data collection to account or control for the effect of known or potential confounding variables.

Adjuvant treatment

Treatment that is given in addition to the primary (initial) treatment. Adjuvant treatment is an addition designed to help reach the ultimate goal.

Administration (or Route)

Manner in which a drug or therapy is introduced into the body. In systemic administration, the drug goes throughout the body, usually carried in the bloodstream, and includes oral, intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), intrathecal (injection into the spinal canal), subcutaneous (injection beneath the skin, SQ), intradermal (ID), depot (drug is injected into a muscle or beneath the skin and slowly absorbed over time), and rectal administrations. Local administration means that the drug is applied or introduced into the specific area affected by the disease, such as application directly onto the affected skin surface (topical administration). The effects of most therapies depend upon the ability of the drug to reach the affected area and the route of administration and consequent distribution of a drug in the body are determinants of its effectiveness.

Adolescence

The period of life from puberty to maturity. The state or process of growing up. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies adolescence as the period in human growth and development that occurs after childhood and before adulthood, from ages 10 to19. It represents one of the critical transitions in the life span and is characterized by a tremendous pace in growth and change that is second only to that of infancy. Biological processes drive many aspects of this growth and development, with the onset of puberty marking the passage from childhood to adolescence. The biological determinants of adolescence are fairly universal; however, the duration and defining characteristics of this period may vary across time, cultures, and socioeconomic situations.

Adolescence

The period of life from puberty to maturity. The state or process of growing up. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies adolescence as the period in human growth and development that occurs after childhood and before adulthood, from ages 10 to19. It represents one of the critical transitions in the life span and is characterized by a tremendous pace in growth and change that is second only to that of infancy. Biological processes drive many aspects of this growth and development, with the onset of puberty marking the passage from childhood to adolescence. The biological determinants of adolescence are fairly universal; however, the duration and defining characteristics of this period may vary across time, cultures, and socioeconomic situations.

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)

A hormone produced by the pituitary gland to regulate production of hormones by the adrenal cortex, including cortisol.

Adverse event

An unwanted side-effect of a treatment.

AEM

Asian Epidemic Modelling

Aerosolized

Liquid (drug) dispensed as a fine mist or gas to be inhaled (e.g. aerosolized pentamidine for PCP prophylaxis).

AFBs

Acid and Alcohol Fast Bacilli

Afterbirth

Common (non-medical, lay) description of the placenta and membranes after they have been expelled from the uterus during the third stage of childbirth.

Afterpains

Cramping triggered by the contractions of the uterus in the postpartum phase as it shrinks and resumes its normal position in the pelvis.

Agammaglobulinemia

Near total absence of immunoglobulins, resulting in the loss of ability to produce immune antibodies.

Agent

Something that produces, or is capable of producing, an effect : an active or efficient cause. A chemically, physically, or biologically active principle.

Agglutination

A reaction in which particles (as red blood cells or bacteria) suspended in a liquid collect into clumps and which occurs especially as a serological response to a specific antibody.

Agonist

In pharmacology, a drug that has affinity for and stimulates physiologic activity at cell receptors normally stimulated by naturally occurring substances. It can also refer to a drug or substance that promotes the activity of another drug.

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AIDS Service Organization (ASO)

Organization that provides care, education and/or other services to people with HIV/AIDS.

AIDS Wasting Syndrome

Involuntary loss of 10 percent or more of baseline body weight. This syndrome is accompanied by chronic diarrhoea (2 loose stools per day >30 days), chronic weakness, and/or documented fever (30 days or more, intermittent or constant), in the absence of a concurrent illness or condition other than HIV infection that would explain the findings.

Alanine Transaminase (or alanine aminotransaminase)

In the liver, this transferase enzyme catalyzes protein metabolism, causing the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to a-ketoglutarate to form glutamate and pyruvate, with pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor. Elevated serum levels of this enzyme are an indication of liver damage from disease or drugs. Also called serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). The enzyme is found in serum and body tissues, especially in the liver. Abbreviated as ALT, GPT, or SGPT.

Algorithm

A series of steps defining a procedure or formula for solving a problem.

Alkaline Phosphatase

An enzyme of the hydrolase class normally present in certain cells within the liver, bone, kidneys, intestine, and placenta. This enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of orthophosphate for orthophosphoric momesters under alkaline conditions. When cells are destroyed in those tissues, this enzyme leaks into the blood and levels rise in proportion to severity. The activity in serum is useful in the clinical diagnosis of many illnesses, especially those affecting the liver.

Alkaloid

A class of compounds present in certain nitrogen-containing plants that have pharmacological effects, e.g. morphine, quinine, reserpine, caffeine, cocaine, nicotine, and LSD.

Allele

One of a series of two or more contrasting genes that occupy the same position in homologous chromosomes and determine the heredity of a particular trait. Each individual has 1 allele at each specific genetic location.

Allelic Exclusion

The expression in plasma cells of antibody genes found in only one member of a pair of homologous chromosomes. This ensures that the antibodies produced are all clones for that particular B cell.

Allergen

A protein or chemical that stimulates an allergic or hypersensitivity reaction. Allergens typically induce the production of the IgE immunoglobulin and are mediated by the release of histamine by mast cells.

Allogeneic

A term describing genetic variants within the same species.

Alma Ata Declaration

The Declaration of Alma-Ata was adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health Care (PHC), Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), currently in Kazakhstan; 6-12 September 1978. It expressed the need for urgent action by all governments, all health and development workers, and the world community to protect and promote the health of all the people of the world. It was the first international declaration underlining the importance of primary health care. The primary health care approach has since then been accepted by member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) as the key to achieving the goal of "Health For All".

Amenorrhea

Absence of menstruation (no periods)

Amino Acid

Any of a class of nitrogen-containing acids. Some 20 amino acids are commonly found in animals and humans. Chains of amino acids synthesized by living systems are called polypeptides (up to about 50 amino acids) and proteins (more than 50 amino acids).

Amino Terminal Domain (or N-terminus)

The end of a polypeptide chain containing a free amino group.

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

The enzyme required to activate an amino acid and link it to its specific tRNA. There are over twenty such enzymes (one per amino acid).

Amniocentesis

The taking of fluid (also called liquor pronounced like-or or amniotic fluid) from mother's uterus to perform diagnostic tests

Amniotic fluid

A liquid that surrounds the baby and protects it while it is in the uterus. Amniotic fluid is generated from maternal plasma and, from week 16 onwards, fetal urine with a small amount of fluid contributed by the lungs. When a woman?s waters breaks, it is the amniotic fluid that is released, in preparation for the baby?s birth.

Amphotropic virus

Recombinant virus that has the capacity to infect a wide variety of mammalian (human) cells.

Amplification assay

A type of test (e.g., polymerase chain reaction, branched-chain DNA) that detects small fragments of DNA or RNA and amplifies the fragments (target amplification) or the chemical signals they produce (signal amplification). Such assays are used to detect microorganisms in blood and tissues.

Amylase

An enzyme secreted by the salivary glands and the pancreas that helps in the digestion of carbohydrates. Elevated levels may be a sign of pancreatitis.

Anabolic

The metabolic processes that build new tissues.

Anaemia

A shortage or change in the size or function of red blood cells. These cells carry oxygen to cells of the body.

Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)

An abnormal growth on the surface of the rectum or anal canal which, when observed with a microscope, suggests that the cells could be malignant.

Anal Sex

Anal sex is any type of sex that involves penetrating someone's anus.

Anal Sex

Anal sex is any type of sex that involves penetrating someone's anus.

Analgesia

Unawareness of pain without loss of consciousness. Pain control.

Analgesia

Unawareness of pain without loss of consciousness. Pain control.

Analgesic

Relating to, characterized by, or producing analgesia. Pain reliever.

Analgesic

Relating to, characterized by, or producing analgesia. An agent that provides pain relief.

Analogue

Chemical structures that are very similar to each other, with minimal changes in number or location of molecules (also called a structural derivative).

Anamnestic Response

A heightened immunologic response stimulated by a second or subsequent exposure to a specific antigen.

ANC

Antenatal Care: According to WHO guidelines, antenatal care visits should include, at a minimum, the measurement of blood pressure, testing of urine for bacteriuria and proteinuria, and blood tests to detect syphilis and severe anaemia.

ANC (Antenatal care)

Antenatal Care: According to WHO guidelines, antenatal care visits should include, at a minimum, the measurement of blood pressure, testing of urine for bacteriuria and proteinuria, and blood tests to detect syphilis and severe anaemia.

Anecdotal

Refers to evidence based on reports of specific individual cases rather than controlled, clinical studies.

Anemia

A deficiency of red blood cells or in their hemoglobin content that leads to pallor, shortness of breath and fatigue.

Anergy

The absence of an expected cell-mediated immune reaction to foreign antigens in sensitized organisms, caused by inactivated B and T cells. (Sometimes, anergy is also used to describe inactivated B or T cells.) Anergy can indicate an inability to mount a normal allergic or immune reaction; immunosuppressed individuals may not test positive for TB on a tuberculin skin test. Researchers have found that CD4 cells in cell culture can be turned off by contact with the HIV envelope, leavings them unable to respond to further immune system stimulation.

Annotated bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations from books, reports, websites, journals, newsletters and other sources. All citations are accompanied by a short descriptive paragraph of the information, which is called the annotation.

Anonymity

Anonymity means that data cannot be traced back to the person who provided them.

Anorexia

Loss of appetite that can result from disease state or medication.

Anoscopy

Examination of the anal canal and lower rectum using a short speculum.

ANOVA

Analysis of variance; a statistical technique that analyzes the contribution to an experimental result made by independent variables.

Antagonist

A drug that counteracts or neutralizes another drug.

Antenatal

The period of time before birth.

Antenatal

During pregnancy, before the birth.

Antenatal steroids

Steroids (either betamethasone or dexamethasone) given to help the fetal lungs and other organs mature more rapidly. Antenatal steroids are given when preterm delivery is anticipated between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation if the mother has intact membranes, and at 24 to 32 weeks' gestation if the mother's membranes have ruptured.

Antepartum

Relating to the period before parturition : before childbirth.

Antepartum

Relating to the period before parturition : before childbirth.

Antepartum hemorrhage (APH)

Bleeding from or in to the genital tract, occurring from 24+ weeks of pregnancy and prior to the birth of the baby.

Anti-D antibody (Rh disease)

A protein made by the immune system that binds to a molecule called the D antigen found on the surface of red blood cells. The D antigen is part of the Rhesus blood group system which consists of several antigens. The antibody hastens removal of the D antigen (and the foreign blood cells) from the body. Anti-D antibody is capable of crossing the placenta and causing SEVERE anemia in the fetus and hemolytic disease of the newborn.

Antibiotic

A drug that affects bacteria.

Antibodies

Proteins produced in the blood. Tests are carried out to see that the mother is not developing antibodies against her baby's blood group.

Antibodies (or Ab)

Molecules in the blood or secretory fluids that tag, destroy, or neutralize bacteria, viruses, or other harmful toxins (see antigens). Antibodies are members of a class of proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are produced and secreted by B-lymphocytes in response to stimulation by antigens. The human body can generate over a trillion different antibodies and specific antibodies bind to and act upon specific antigens. The antibody/antigen reaction forms the basis of humoral immunity.

Antibody-Dependent Cytotoxicity (ADC, or Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity)

An immune response in which antibodies bind to target cells and identify them for attack by natural killer cells and macrophages.

Anticoagulants

Drugs that prevent the clotting of blood.

Anticodon

The triplet of contiguous bases on tRNA that binds to the codon sequence of nucleotides on mRNA.

Anticonvulsants

A drug used to control or to prevent convulsions (as in epilepsy).

Antiemetic

An agent that relieves nausea and vomiting.

Antigen (Ag)

A substance that stimulates an immune response. Antigens can be exogenous (originating from the environment e.g. pollen) or endogenous (toxic bacterial or viral microorganisms formed within the body).

Antigen (Ag)

A substance that stimulates an immune response. Antigens can be exogenous (originating from the environment e.g. pollen) or endogenous (toxic bacterial or viral microorganisms formed within the body).

Antigen (Ag)

A substance that stimulates an immune response. Antigens can be exogenous (originating from the environment e.g. pollen) or endogenous (toxic bacterial or viral microorganisms formed within the body).

Antigen-Positive

Having proteins from a microorganism (e.g., HIV RNA) in the blood or tissues, as determined by tests such as the PCR assay.

Antigen-Presenting cells (APC)

A variety of lymphoid cells (e.g. macrophages or dendritic) that process antigen proteins and display the short peptide fragments on their surface in conjunction with major histocompatibility (MHC) proteins, enabling recognition by T-cells.

Antioxidant

A vitamin, mineral or drug which can reduce the activity of free radicals, the unpaired electrons produced as a consequence of burning energy in a cell.

Antiretroviral

An agent that acts against retroviruses such as HIV.

Antiretroviral

An agent that acts against retroviruses such as HIV.

Antiretroviral

An agent that acts against retroviruses such as HIV.

Antisense

DNA or mRNA sequences that are the opposite (mirror image) of a specific gene DNA or mRNA sequence implicated in disease, in order to bind and physically inhibit their expression by physically blocking them. Antisense drugs are designed to lock into and block viral genetic instructions, marking them for destruction by cellular enzymes to prevent the building of new virus or the infection of new cells.

Antiviral Drugs

Drugs designed to reduce or eliminate virus in the body.

Anus

The hole at the end of the back passage through which feces pass.

Anus

The hole at the end of the back passage through which feces pass.

Apgar score

An assessment of the physical condition of an infant after birth. It was created by Dr. Virginia Apgar. The score is based on a combination of the baby's heartbeat, respiration, skin color, irritability, and muscle tone. The scores are added up to give a total score between 0 and 10 at one minute after birth. The assessment is repeated at five minutes after birth.

Aphasia

Loss or impairment of the power to use or comprehend words, usually resulting from brain damage.

Apnea

A temporary involuntary cessation of breathing.

Apoptosis

CD4+ T cells may be killed when cellular regulation is distorted by HIV proteins, probably leading to their suicide by a process known as programmed cell death or apoptosis. Recent reports indicate that apoptosis occurs to a greater extent in HIV-infected individuals, both in the bloodstream and lymph nodes.

Area sampling

Collection and analysis of representative samples of air in general work areas in order to determine the concentrations of any contaminants that are present.

Areola

The dark pigmented ring on the breast surrounding the nipple. During pregnancy, the areola can spread and darken. While breastfeeding, the baby compresses the areola to extract breast milk.

Armamentarium

A collection of resources available or utilized for an undertaking or field of activity; especially the equipment, methods, and pharmaceuticals used in medicine.

Arrest of descent

No fetal descent after 1 hour during the second stage of labor despite uterine contractions and maternal effort (pushing).

Arrest of dilatation

Failure of the cervix to continue to dilate to a full 10 cm despite active labor.

Arrhythmias

An alteration in rhythm of the heartbeat, either in time or strength.

ART

Antiretroviral (anti-HIV) therapy

ART

Antiretroviral (anti-HIV) therapy

Artefact

An ""accidental"" result or outcome that does not reflect reality, often due to an extraneous factor.

Arthralgia

Pain in the joints.

Arthritis

Inflammation in the joints.

ARV

Antiretroviral agent or drug

ARV

Antiretroviral agent or drug

Ascites

Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the spaces between tissues and organs in the cavity of the abdomen.

Ascitic

Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the spaces between tissues and organs in the cavity of the abdomen.

ASO

Abbreviation for AIDS Service Organization.

Aspartate Aminotransaminase (AST)

A liver enzyme that plays a role in protein metabolism; elevated serum levels of AST are a sign of liver damage from disease or drugs. AST is also referred to as SGOT: serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase.

Aspergilloma

A fungal mass that grows in a cavity in the lungs. Aspergillosis is a fungal disease that can cause lesions of the skin, ear, orbit, nasal sinuses, lungs, and sometimes the bones, meninges, heart, kidneys or spleen. Symptoms include fever, chills, difficulty breathing, and coughing up blood. If the infection reaches the brain, it may cause dementia.

Aspirate

To inhale liquid into the lungs, or to remove liquid from the lungs with a suction device.

Aspiration

Withdrawal of fluid or tissue by suction, typically through a needle (e.g., to obtain a sample for analysis).

Assay

Can refer to the biological qualitative (condition) or quantitative (amount) analysis of a substance or to a test that detects the presence, absence, or quantity of an agent (i.e. drug or viral load). Examples of biological activity that can be assayed are enzyme activity, binding affinity, or protein turnover. Most assays utilize a measurable parameter such as colour, fluorescence, or radioactivity to correlate with biological activity.

Assembly & budding

The final stages of the viral life cycle. Newly-made HIV core proteins, enzymes, and RNA gather just inside the cell's membrane while the viral envelope proteins aggregate within the membrane. An immature viral particle forms and pinches off from the cell, acquiring an envelope that includes both cellular and HIV proteins from the cell membrane. During this part of the viral life cycle, the core of the virus is immature and the virus is not yet infectious. The long chains of proteins and enzymes that make up the immature viral core are cleaved into smaller pieces by a viral enzyme called protease. This step results in infectious viral particles.

Assessment

Determination of the outcome of the study and control group.

Association

Relationship among two or more characteristics or measurements beyond what would be expected by chance alone. Variables are related if knowledge of one is useful in predicting the other.

Asthenia

Weakness.

Asymptomatic

Having no symptoms.

Ataxia

Loss or lack of muscle coordination.

Atherogenic

Producing the most degenerative changes in artery walls.

Atherosclerosis

Hardening and narrowing of the arteries.

Atom

The smallest division of an element that can exist independently. Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and are the component parts of molecules.

Atrophy

Emaciation, loss of tissue, progressive degeneration, wasting or decrease in size, especially the loss of muscle tissue.

Attenuate

To weaken or reduce the level of virulence. An ""attenuated virus"" has a diminished ability to cause disease. An ""attenuated vaccine"" is one whose infectious organisms' exhibit low virulence or that cannot multiply in the host due to their inactivation or exposure to radiation, chemical treatment, or genetic manipulation.

Atypia

Condition of being abnormal or not typical.

AUC (or area under the curve)

A measure of total exposure to a drug over a 24-hour period.

Audiometric testing

Tests that are conducted to determine the hearing ability of a person. These tests may be used to establish an employee’s baseline hearing, to identify any subsequent hearing loss, and to monitor the effectiveness of noise controls.

Audit

A systematic and documented process for obtaining evidence from inspections, interviews and document review, and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which relevant criteria are fulfilled.

Autoantibody

An antibody (immunoglobulin) formed in response to, and reacting against, one of the host's own normal antigenic, endogenous body constituents.

Autoantigen

A normal tissue constituent that additionally, is the target of a humoral or cell-mediated immune response.

Autocrine

A cellular messenger that acts at or near the site where it is produced.

Autoimmune Disorders

A disease where the body's cells attacks themselves. In these instances, an individual's immune system fails to recognize its own biochemical markers and body tissues are attacked as if they were foreign matter (e.g. lupus, rheumatoid arthritis).

Autoinoculation

Spread of infection by an individual from one part of their body to another, usually by means of the hands.

Autologous

Derived from the same individual, e.g. an autologous transfusion or transplant is one in which a person's own blood or tissues are removed and reintroduced at a later time.

Autonomic nervous system

The part of the nervous system that controls involuntary bodily actions.

Azole

Any of a class of compounds characterized by a five-membered ring which contains an atom of nitrogen and at least one other noncarbon atom (nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur). The prefixes furo-, pyrro-, and thio- are used to distinguish three subclasses of azoles derived from furfuran, pyrrol, and thiophen.

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B

B-Cell (or B-lymphocyte)

A white blood cell that carries out the humoral (TH2) immune response by producing antibodies to fight infection. Virus-specific antibodies bind to the virus in the process of making it impossible for viruses to infect cells. B-cells are produced in the bone marrow and when stimulated by a particular antigen, differentiate into plasma cells.

Baby blues

Mild depression that follows childbirth, normally around day 3. It is usually the result of the postpartum hormonal swings and the natural slump after the excitement of labor and birth. Baby blues affects 60 to 80% of all new mothers.

Bacillary Angiomatosis (or cat scratch disease)

A vascular proliferative disease caused by Bartonella henselae or Bartonella Quintana that may result in swollen purplish lesions similar to those of Kaposi's sarcoma. BA is associated with contact with domestic cats.

Back-Mutation

The reversion of a mutant, attenuated strain of a microorganism back to its natural, more virulent state.

Bacteremia

Presence of bacteria in the blood.

Bacteria (or Bacterium)

Extremely small, simple, one-cell microorganisms that multiply by cell division and whose cell is typically contained within a cell wall, occurring in spherical, rodlike, spiral, or curving shapes and found in virtually all environments; some types are important agents in the cycles of nitrogen, carbon, and other matter, while others cause diseases in humans and animals. Bacteria can be classified by shape, staining properties (gram negative or positive), and habitat (anaerobic, aerobic).

Bacterial STDs

These STDs are caused by bacteria and can usually be cured. However, it is important to treat the STD at an early stage. If a person waits too long before starting treatment, the STD can cause considerable harm to his/her body:. Examples of bacterial STDs are: Syphilis, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and Chancroid.

Bacterial STDs

These STDs are caused by bacteria and can usually be cured. However, it is important to treat the STD at an early stage. If a person waits too long before starting treatment, the STD can cause considerable harm to his/her body:. Examples of bacterial STDs are: Syphilis, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and Chancroid.

Bacteriophages

Viruses whose host is a bacterial cell.

Bacteriostatic

An agent that inhibits bacterial growth or reproduction but does not kill bacteria.

Baculovirus

A virus of insects used in the production of some HIV vaccines.

Balanitis

Inflammation of the glans (head) of the penis.

Barrier Methods

In contraceptive terms, a barrier is a block that physically prevents sperm from entering the womb.

Barrier Methods

In contraceptive terms, a barrier is a block that physically prevents sperm from entering the womb.

Basal Cell

A skin cell located in one of the innermost layers of the skin.

Basal Cell Epithelioma (BCE)

Basal cell skin cancer which appears as a pink raised patch with a necrosed center; left untreated, the lesion may invade deeper tissues. In otherwise healthy people BCE tends to occur on areas of the body exposed to the sun, but in HIV-infected people it may occur on unexposed areas.

Basal Ganglion (or Basal Ganglia)

A cluster of nerve tissue, primarily composed of neuron cell bodies, deep within the brain.

Basal Metabolic Rate

The body's resting level of energy expenditure. Individuals with a chronic infection often have an elevated basal metabolic rate.

Base-pairing

The process by which a nucleic acid base matches up with its complementary counterpart during replication of genetic material. Two strands of DNA are held together in the shape of a double helix by the bonds between base pairs adenine and thymine (A-T) and cytosine and guanine (C-G). In RNA, the base pairs are A-U (uracil) and C-G. The number of base pairs is often used as a measure of the length of a DNA segment, e.g. 500 bp.

Baseline

An observation or value representing the initial or normal background level of a measurable quantity to which later measurements can be compared (e.g., baseline CD4 cell count or HIV viral load).

Basophil

A type of white blood cell, also called a granular leukocyte, filled with granules of toxic chemicals, that can digest micro-organisms. Basophils are responsible for some of the symptoms of an allergy.

BCG (or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin)

BCG is used in some countries as a vaccine against tuberculosis. BCG vaccination renders the PPD test unusable as a test for the presence of m. tuberculosis. BCG adenitis is an illness caused by BCG that is present in some infants with HIV and is characterized by inflammation of the lymph nodes.

Bd

Abbreviation of a Latin term meaning twice daily.

Behavior-change communication (BCC)

A community-level process aimed at developing positive behaviors e.g. HIV prevention; promoting and sustaining individual, community and societal behavior change; and maintaining appropriate behaviors.

Behavioural Intervention

Strategies to assist individuals develop or modify behaviours (i.e. risk reduction strategies to lower exposure to HIV infection; pill-taking techniques to support adherence to treatment regimens).

Behavioural Surveillance Surveys (BSS)

Behavioural Surveillance Surveys (BSS) are methods for reliably measuring trends in risk behaviour over time.

Beneficence

Ethical research principle that refers to the concept that research should seek to promote the well-being of others.

Benign

Refers to a mild, non-lethal illness, especially a non-cancerous neoplasm. Contrast with malignant.

BHIVA

British HIV Association: the UK professional association representing professionals in HIV care.

BIA (or Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis)

Technique to estimate amounts of total body water, lean tissue mass, and total body fat. It uses the resistance of tissue to the flow of an alternating electric current.

Bias

A false association that results from the failure to account for some skewing or influencing factor, or a tendency for the observed results to deviate from the ""true"" results. Bias, which is a systemic error, distorts results in a particular direction. For example, if an investigator in a clinical trial believes the drug under study to be effective and knows which participants are receiving the drug, bias may influence his/her observations in favour of positive results.

Bid

Abbreviation of a Latin term meaning twice daily.

Bile

A fluid produced by the liver. Partly a secretion of waste products and partly aids digestion by breaking down fats and assisting the absorption of nutrients.

Bilirubin

A chemical released by the liver as a result of damage caused by infection or drugs. Levels are assessed in the diagnosis of liver problems.

Bilirubin

Pigment in the blood, urine and bile that occurs as a result of normal hemoglobin breakdown in red blood cells. An abnormally high bilirubin level results in jaundice.

Bioavailability

A measure of the amount of drug that becomes available to the target tissue after administration.

Biological agent

Any living organism (for example, virus, bacteria or fungi) that affects the body, a part of the body, or any of its functions. The effects may be beneficial or harmful.

Biological monitoring

Assessments in blood, urine, faeces, exhaled air, nails or hair of a chemical or its metabolite to determine whether a person has been or is being exposed to that chemical by looking for traces of the chemicals or biological indicators of chemical exposure.

Biological Response Modifier

An immunomodulator; an agent (e.g., cytokine, thymic hormone) that enhances or restores immune function.

Biopsy

A small sample of tissue that can be examined for signs of disease.

Biotechnology

The application of biological knowledge and techniques to develop products. The term can be used to refer to the newer tools of genetic science. In this context, biotechnology may be defined as the use of biotechnical methods to modify the genetic materials of living cells so they will produce new substances or perform new functions. Examples include recombinant DNA technology, in which a copy of a piece of DNA containing one or a few genes is transferred between organisms or ""recombined"" within an organism.

Bishop score

An evaluation of readiness for delivery. The score is calculated by using the degree of cervical dilation and effacement; the station the presenting part has reached, and cervical texture and position.

Bitter Melon (or momordica charantia)

Fruit of a Chinese vine related to the cucumber used with a long tradition of medicinal use in Asia. The plant is a source of MAP 30, a protein that shows anti-HIV activity in vitro, but little information about its efficacy or proper use is available.

Bladder

Organ of the body that collects the urine that is excreted by the kidneys before being excreted via urination.

Blood-Brain Barrier

A membrane that separates brain tissue from circulating blood. In HIV treatment, it usually refers to the difficulty of getting drugs from the blood stream to penetrate into the central nervous system.

Bloody show

The passage of a small amount of blood or blood-tinged mucus through the vagina near the end of pregnancy. It can occur just before labor or in early labor as the cervix changes shape, freeing mucus and blood that occupied the cervical glands or cervical os.

Bloody show

A light reddish or brown colored mucus that is released from the cervical area. This is a sign that labor is about to begin.

BMI (or body mass index)

A measure of mass that is calculated as weight divided by height squared.

Body Fluids

A group of fluids made within the body, usually blood, saliva, semen, and urine.

Body image

A person's opinions, thoughts, and feelings about her or his own body and physical appearance.

Body image

A person's opinions, thoughts, and feelings about her or his own body and physical appearance.

Body Language

Refers to various forms of nonverbal communication, wherein a person may reveal clues as to some unspoken intention or feeling through their physical behavior. These behaviors can include body posture, gestures, facial expressions, and eye movements.

Body Language

Refers to various forms of nonverbal communication, wherein a person may reveal clues as to some unspoken intention or feeling through their physical behavior. These behaviors can include body posture, gestures, facial expressions, and eye movements.

BOHS

The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of occupational health by means of primary health care principles for workers who are underserved. Many regions and economic sectors lack regular occupational health services. Basic Occupational Health Services (BOHS) is a starting point for these area’s and economic sectors.

Bone marrow

Cells in the middle of bones which are responsible for producing blood cells.

Bone Marrow Transfer (BMT)

A graft of bone marrow from one individual to another to reconstitute the recipient's damaged immune system.

Booking

The mother's first antenatal check.

Booster

A subsequent dose given some time after initial administration of a vaccine or drug to enhance or restore its effectiveness.

Botanical

A medicine or therapy prepared from plants; herbal medicine.

BP

Blood pressure.

Br, Breech

The fetus is lying bottom or feet down in the uterus, instead of head first.

Brainstorming

A method of participatory learning whereby ideas are explored. Brainstorming is an informal way of generating topics to write about, or points to make about your topic. The important point about brainstorming is that there should be no pressure to be ""brilliant."" Students should simply open their minds to whatever pops into them.

Brainstorming

A method of participatory learning whereby ideas are explored. Brainstorming is an informal way of generating topics to write about, or points to make about your topic. The important point about brainstorming is that there should be no pressure to be ""brilliant."" Students should simply open their minds to whatever pops into them.

Branched DNA Assay

See bDNA Assay.

Braxton-Hicks Contractions

Painless contractions during pregnancy that help the uterus to grow and to help the blood circulate through the uterus.

Breakthrough

Refers to a condition that has developed, despite measures to prevent it (e.g., PCP that occurs while taking a prophylactic drug).

Breakthrough pain

Pain occurring before the next regular dose of analgesia can be given.

Breast

Organ that can secrete milk after childbirth.

Breastfeeding

The nursing or suckling of a baby at the breast.

Bronchial Lavage (or broncho-alveolar lavage)

A procedure in which large volumes of saline are rinsed through the lungs, followed by suction. The resulting fluid can then be analyzed for disease-causing organisms.

Bronchoscopy

Procedure for examining the respiratory tract using a thin, flexible, illuminated, tube-shaped instrument (bronchoscope) inserted into the lungs through the throat, pharynx, and trachea to allow direct examination of the interior of the bronchial tubes.

Brow presentation

The fetus' head is bent backwards during labor and birth in an abnormal position instead of the typical chin resting on chest position.

BSL

Blood sugar level.

BSS

Behavioural surveillance surveys are a monitoring and evaluation methodology designed to track trends in HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviour in selected segments of a country or community's population

Buccal

Pertaining to or directed toward the cheek

Buffalo hump

Fat accumulation on the back of the neck and shoulders associated with hormonal changes and lipodystrophy.

Business process improvement

Business process improvement (BPI) is a systematic approach to help an organization optimize its underlying processes to achieve more efficient results. It should be noted that BPI focuses on "doing things right" more than it does on "doing the right thing". In essence, BPI attempts to reduce variation and/or waste in processes, so that the desired outcome can be achieved with better utilisation of resources. BPI works by: Defining the organization's strategic goals and purposes (Who are we, what do we do, and why do we do it?) Determining the organization's customers (or stakeholders) (Who do we serve?) Aligning the business processes to realize the organization's goals (How do we do it better?) The goal of BPI is a radical change in the performance of an organization, rather than a series of incremental changes (compare TQM). (Wikipedia)

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C

C, Ceph, Cephalic

Unborn baby lying head down.

C.S.F.

Cerebrospinal fluid, a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system around and inside the brain.

Caesarean section

Method of birth where the child is delivered through a cut made in the womb.

Caesarean section

Method of birth where the child is delivered through a cut made in the womb.

Caesarean section

Method of birth where the child is delivered through a cut made in the womb.

Campylobacter

A family of bacteria (e.g., C. jejuni, C. fetus) that may cause acute illness affecting the small intestine, characterized by abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever and bloody diarrhoea. Campylobacter is frequently found in undercooked poultry and in raw or unpasteurized milk products.

Canarypox

A poxvirus that typically infects canaries and is used in human vaccine research.

Candida

A yeast that can cause an infection.

Candidiasis

Infection with a fungus of the genus Candida. In the mouth, candidiasis is called thrush and appears as white patches. In the vagina, the disease is called vulvovaginal candidiasis. Candidiasis can also attack lungs and the esophagus.

Caput succedaneum

A neonatal condition involving an edematous swelling formed under the presenting part of the scalp (serosanguinous, subcutaneous, extraperiosteal) of a newborn infant. This condition develops when the presenting part of the scalp presses against the dilating cervix during delivery.

Carcinogen

A chemical, physical or biological agent that can cause cancer in humans or animals.

Carcinogenic

Producing or tending to produce cancer.

Carcinoma

A malignant tumour that may spread throughout the body.

Cardiovascular

Relating to the heart and blood vessels.

Cardiovascular disease

Includes coronary heart disease (CHD) (about 50%), stroke (about 25%), and other circulatory system diseases.

Caring

Having a concern or an interest in someone else's feelings, needs, and wants, and wanting them to achieve what is best for them. It is also known as 'love', 'affection', 'liking'.

Caring

Having a concern or an interest in someone else's feelings, needs, and wants, and wanting them to achieve what is best for them. It is also known as 'love', 'affection', 'liking'.

Caseation

Necrosis with conversion of damaged tissue into material resembling a soft cheesy substance.

Caseous

Marked by caseation. For example, caseous necrosis is a form of biological tissue death.

CAT scan

Computerised axial tomography scan. A type of specialised X-ray that gives a view of a 'slice' through the body, and is used to help detect tumours, infections and other changes in anatomy.

Cat Scratch Disease (or Bacillary Angiomatosis)

A vascular proliferative disease caused by Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana that may result in swollen purplish lesions similar to those of Kaposi's sarcoma. BA is associated with contact with domestic cats.

Catheter

A tube that is implanted with one end within the body and the other remaining outside, to make it easier to get drugs into, or waste products out of the body.

Catheter

A tube that is implanted with one end within the body and the other end remaining outside of the body, to make it easier to get drugs into, or waste products out of, the body.

Causal research

See explanatory research.

Cavitation

The formation of pathological cavities (holes), e.g. the effect that active tuberculosis has on lung tissue.

CBC

Complete Blood Count

CBO

Abbreviation for ""Community-based Organization.""

CCR

Classes of Chemokine Receptor

CCR5 Receptor

A chemokine receptor for macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV strains. Both CCR5 and CD4 receptors are required for infection with the (M-tropic) HIV strains responsible for a vast majority of HIV infections. A 32-nucleotide deletion in the CCR5 gene (termed CCR5delta32) can confer resistance to HIV infection. If an individual has one copy of this mutation, they are termed heterozygous for that gene and display resistance to M-tropic HIV strains. If infected, they may experience a delayed progression of infection. Some individuals who have received a copy of the CCR5delta32 mutation from both parents may be highly-resistant to infection by M-tropic HIV strains.

CD

Abbreviation for cluster differentiation; a marker protein embedded in the surface of cell membranes or the interior of cells. The cell surface molecule is designated CD followed by a number (e.g. CD4 and CD8; see separate definitions for each of these).

CD4

Cluster dfferentiation 4 (CD4) is a type of T-cell (thymus-induced cell) involved in protection against viral, fungal, and protozoal infections. T-cells normally orchestrate the immune response, signalling other cells in the immune system to perform their special functions. CD4+ indicates that the T-lymphocyte cell has a docking molecule on its surface to which the virus that causes HIV can attach. The cell surface protein CD4 is important for recognition by the T cell receptor of antigenic peptides bound to MHC class II molecules. It acts as a co-receptor by binding to the lateral face of MHC class II molecules. A protein embedded in the surface of some T-lymphocyte cells and certain other cells (e.g., macrophages, langerhans cells, glial cells).

CD4

Cluster dfferentiation 4 (CD4) is a type of T-cell (thymus-induced cell) involved in protection against viral, fungal, and protozoal infections. T-cells normally orchestrate the immune response, signalling other cells in the immune system to perform their special functions. CD4+ indicates that the T-lymphocyte cell has a docking molecule on its surface to which the virus that causes HIV can attach. The cell surface protein CD4 is important for recognition by the T cell receptor of antigenic peptides bound to MHC class II molecules. It acts as a co-receptor by binding to the lateral face of MHC class II molecules. A protein embedded in the surface of some T-lymphocyte cells and certain other cells (e.g., macrophages, langerhans cells, glial cells).

CD4

Cluster dfferentiation 4 (CD4) is a type of T-cell (thymus-induced cell) involved in protection against viral, fungal, and protozoal infections. T-cells normally orchestrate the immune response, signalling other cells in the immune system to perform their special functions. CD4+ indicates that the T-lymphocyte cell has a docking molecule on its surface to which the virus that causes HIV can attach. The cell surface protein CD4 is important for recognition by the T cell receptor of antigenic peptides bound to MHC class II molecules. It acts as a co-receptor by binding to the lateral face of MHC class II molecules. A protein embedded in the surface of some T-lymphocyte cells and certain other cells (e.g., macrophages, langerhans cells, glial cells).

CD8 Cells

Protein embedded in the cell surface of suppressor T-lymphocytes, also known as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). Some CD8 cells recognize and kill cancerous cells and those infected by intracellular pathogens (bacteria, viruses, and mycoplasma). The cell surface protein CD8 is important for recognition by the T-cell receptor of antigenic peptides bound to MHC class I molecules and acts as a co-receptor by binding to the lateral face of MHC class I molecules.

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. It works to protect public health and safety by providing information to enhance health decisions, and promotes health through partnerships with state health departments and other organizations.

Ceiling

The maximum biological effect that can be induced in a tissue by a given drug, regardless of how large a dose is administered. The maximum effect produced by a given drug may be less than the maximum response of which the reacting tissue is capable, and less than the maximum response which can be induced by another drug of greater intrinsic activity. ""Ceiling"" is analogous to the maximum reaction velocity of an enzymatic reaction when the enzyme is saturated with substrate. ""Ceiling effect"" is the phenomenon in which a drug reaches a maximum effect, so that increasing the drug dosage does not increase its effectiveness.

Ceiling exposure limit

See Threshold limit values.

Cell Lines

Specific cell types artificially maintained in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro) for scientific purposes.

Cell Membrane

The envelope around a cell which encloses the cytoplasm and is responsible for the exchange of materials with the surrounding environment.

Cell-Free Virus

Virus that exists outside of cells within the bloodstream.

Central nervous system

The brain and spinal cord.

Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD)

An obstetric condition in which a baby's head is too large or a mother's pelvis too small to permit normal labor or birth.

Cerebral

Involving the brain.

Cerebral palsy

A disability resulting from damage to the brain before, during, or shortly after birth and outwardly manifested by lack of muscular co-ordination and speech disturbances.

Cerebral palsy

A disability resulting from damage to the brain before, during, or shortly after birth. It is outwardly manifested by a lack of muscular co-ordination and speech disturbances.

Cerebrospinal fluid

The liquid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

Cerebrovascular

Involving the brain and the blood vessels supplying it.

Cervical (Pap) Smear

A sample of cellular material taken from the neck (cervix) of the uterus for the detection of cancer.

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN)

Abnormal growth of cells of the uterine cervix, suggesting an early stage of cervical cancer. Human papilloma virus (HPV) and HIV infection are associated with an increased risk of CIN.

Cervical os

The opening of the uterine cervix which is covered by squamous epithelium.

Cervical ripening

The process that prepares the cervix for labor, making the cervix softer and more dilatable. Cervical ripening either occurs naturally or can be accomplished artificially using prostaglandins or misoprostol.

Cervix

The 'neck of the womb' at the top of the vagina.

Cervix

The narrow neck-like passage forming the lower end of the uterus

Cesarean section

Method of delivery of an infant through a surgical incision in the abdominal and uterine walls.

Cessation

A temporary or final ending of a process or action.

Chancroid

Chancroid is a highly contagious STD. It is caused by bacteria called Haemophilus ducreyi (or H. ducreyi), and is transmitted through oral, vaginal or anal sex. Symptoms usually occur within 10 days of exposure. Chancroid causes ulcers or sores, usually on the genitals. The ulcer or sore begins as a tender, elevated bump, or a papule that becomes a pus-filled, open sore with eroded or ragged edges. It is soft to the touch (unlike a syphilis chancre which is hard or rubbery). Other symptoms are swollen, painful lymph glands in the groin area. Chancroid is frequently asymptomatic in women, and so they are often unaware that they are infected. Chancroid can be treated and cured with antibiotics.

Chancroid

Chancroid is a highly contagious STD. It is caused by bacteria called Haemophilus ducreyi (or H. ducreyi), and is transmitted through oral, vaginal or anal sex. Symptoms usually occur within 10 days of exposure. Chancroid causes ulcers or sores, usually on the genitals. The ulcer or sore begins as a tender, elevated bump, or a papule that becomes a pus-filled, open sore with eroded or ragged edges. It is soft to the touch (unlike a syphilis chancre which is hard or rubbery). Other symptoms are swollen, painful lymph glands in the groin area. Chancroid is frequently asymptomatic in women, and so they are often unaware that they are infected. Chancroid can be treated and cured with antibiotics.

Cheilitis

Inflammation and fissures radiating from the corners of the mouth. Cheilitis may be due to various causes (e.g., nutritional deficiencies, candidiasis).

Chemical agent

A chemical substance that affects the body, a part of the body, or any of its functions. The effects may be beneficial or harmful.

Chemokines

Intracellular messenger molecules secreted by CD8 cells, whose major function is to attract immune cells to sites of infection. HIV-1 needs access to chemokine receptors on the cell surface in order to infect the cell.

Chemotherapy

The use of drugs to treat an illness, often denotes drugs used to treat cancer.

Cheyne-stokes respiration

Cyclic breathing marked by a gradual increase in the rapidity of respiration followed by a gradual decrease and total cessation for from 5 to 50 seconds and found especially in advanced kidney and heart disease, asthma, and increased intracranial pressure.

Chlamydia

Chlamydia infection is a common sexually transmitted infection in humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The term Chlamydia infection can also refer to infection caused by any species belonging to the bacterial family Chlamydiaceae. Chlamydia is a major infectious cause of human genital and eye disease. Chlamydia infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide.

Chlamydia

Chlamydia infection is a common sexually transmitted infection in humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The term Chlamydia infection can also refer to infection caused by any species belonging to the bacterial family Chlamydiaceae. Chlamydia is a major infectious cause of human genital and eye disease. Chlamydia infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide.

Chlamydia

A common sexually transmitted disease, often with no visible symptoms. Left untreated, chlamydia can make a woman infertile. If a woman who has chlamydia becomes pregnant, she can pass the infection on to the baby, causing pneumonia, eye infections, and, in severe cases, blindness. Chlamydia is treatable with antibiotics.

Cholesterol

A waxy substance, mostly made by the body and used to produce steroid hormones. High levels can be associated with atherosclerosis.

Chorioamnionitis

Chorioamnionitis is a condition that can affect pregnant women in which the chorion and amnion (the membranes that surround the fetus) and the amniotic fluid (in which the fetus floats) are infected by bacteria. This can lead to infection in both the mother and fetus, and, in most cases, means the fetus has to be delivered as soon as possible

Chorioamnionitis

Inflammation of the membrane and fluid surrounding the fetus as a result of bacterial or viral infection.

Chromophore

A chemical group that absorbs light at a specific frequency and so imparts colour to a molecule; also a coloured chemical compound.

Chronic

A long-term condition.

Chronic

A long-term condition.

Chronic effect

A change that occurs in the body over a relatively long time (weeks, months, years) following repeated exposure or a single over-exposure to a substance.

Chronic hypertension

Chronic hypertension is defined as blood pressure exceeding 140/90 mm Hg before pregnancy or before 20 weeks' gestation.

Clade

A group of organisms which includes the most recent common ancestor of all of its members and all of the descendants of that most recent common ancestor.

Clearance

The quantitative measure of the rate at which a substance is removed from the blood.

Cleavage

The splitting of a molecule into simpler molecules.

Clinical

Relating to the treatment of patients. A clinical observation is based on the observed condition of patients and their symptoms, as distinguished from blood tests or other laboratory findings.

Clinical

Relating to the treatment of patients. A clinical observation is based on the observed condition of patients and their symptoms, as distinguished from blood tests or other laboratory findings.

Clinical

Relating to the treatment of patients. A clinical observation is based on the observed condition of patients and their symptoms, as distinguished from blood tests or other laboratory findings.

Clinical event

The occurrence of a physical sign or symptom, rather than an abnormality that can only be detected by laboratory tests.

Clinical Trial

An organized procedure for determining the effectiveness of a new drug or therapy by administering the agent to participants under strictly controlled conditions. In many clinical trials new agents are tested against older agents or an inactive substance (placebo).

Clinical Trial

An organized procedure for determining the effectiveness of a new drug or therapy by administering the agent to participants under strictly controlled conditions. In many clinical trials new agents are tested against older agents or an inactive substance (placebo).

Clinical Trial

An organized procedure for determining the effectiveness of a new drug or therapy by administering the agent to participants under strictly controlled conditions. In many clinical trials new agents are tested against older agents or an inactive substance (placebo).

Clinical Trial Crossover

A trial design in which the therapy given to different arms is switched (i.e. From active drug to placebo; from placebo to active drug; or to an alternate regimen or dosing schedule) during the course of the trial.

Clinician

A medical doctor who looks after patients.

Clitoris

A female sexual organ that is small, sensitive, and located on the outside of the body in front of the opening of the vagina.

Clitoris

A female sexual organ that is small, sensitive, and located on the outside of the body in front of the opening of the vagina.

Clone

A group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single common ancestor. Also refers to the process of creating identical cells or organisms. Monoclonal refers to the products (e.g., antibodies) of a single clone.

Cluster Differentiation (CD)

A marker protein embedded in the surface of cell membranes or the interior of cells. CD molecules determine which other molecules can bind to a given cell.

CM

Cryptococcal meningitis

Cmax

The maximum concentration of a drug in the blood. Cmax occurs shortly after taking a dose and is also known as ""peak concentration"".

CMI

Cell Mediated Immunity

Cmin

The minimum concentration of a drug in the blood. Cmin occurs close to the time the next dose is to be taken and is also known as ""trough concentration.""

CMV

Cytomegalovirus, a virus that can cause blindness in people with advanced HIV disease.

CNS

Central nervous system.

CNS excitation

An act of irritation or stimulation or of responding to a stimulus.

Co-receptor

A second receptor that enables an organism to infect a cell. In addition to the CD4+ receptor on cell surfaces, HIV requires the co-receptor fusin (CXCR4) to infect T-cells and the co-receptor CCR5 to infect macrophages.

Cochrane Collaboration

An international, non-profit, independent organization established to ensure that current, accurate information about the effects of health care interventions is readily available worldwide, through the publication of Cochrane Reviews (systematic reviews of the literature).

Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group

It is one of more than 50 collaborative Review Groups within the Cochrane Collaboration. The group collects for as many occupational safety and health topics as possible, all the available research on the effects of specific protective measures. The results of these studies are combined in reports that are called systematic reviews.

Codon

A sequence of 3 nucleotides or bases of messenger RNA (mRNA) that encode the information for a particular amino acid (the building blocks that make up proteins). Changes in specific codons can confer resistance to certain drugs (e.g., a codon 215 mutation is associated with zidovudine resistance).

Cohort

A group of individuals in a study who share a demographic, clinical, or other statistical characteristic (e.g., age, study site).

Coinfection

Having more than one infection at the same time. For example, when a person with HIV has hepatitis B or C. This can make each disease worse and treatment more difficult.

Coital

relating to coitus or copulation which means sexual intercourse.

Coital

Relating to coitus or copulation i.e. sexual intercourse.

Colitis

Inflammation of the bowels.

Colony-stimulating Factor (CSF)

A cytokine responsible for regulating the production of white blood cells. Types include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), used to relieve neutropenia.

Colostrum

A fluid in the breasts that nourishes the baby until the breast milk becomes available. Colostrum contains fats, carbohydrates, white blood cells, protein, and antibodies.

Colposcopy (or Biomicroscopy)

Examination of a tissue surface (particularly the uterine cervix) with a low-powered, lighted microscope (colposcope) to identify abnormal cell growth and, if necessary, remove a tissue sample for biopsy.

Combination therapy

Using more than one drug at a time.

Communication

The act or process of using words, sounds, signs, or behaviors to express or exchange information or to express your ideas, thoughts, feelings etc. to someone else.

Communication

The act or process of using words, sounds, signs, or behaviors to express or exchange information or to express your ideas, thoughts, feelings etc. to someone else.

Community

A group of people who live in the same area (such as a city, town, or neighborhood) and/or a group of people who have the same interests, religion, race, etc.

Community

A group of people who live in the same area (such as a city, town, or neighborhood) and/or a group of people who have the same interests, religion, race, etc.

Community assessment

Type of research with the aim of defining and understanding the needs, problems, resources and assets of a community.

Community Based Participatory Research

Community Based Participatory Research is a partnership approach to research that equally involves community members, organizations and researchers in all phases of the research process.

Compassionate use

The term under which an investigational drug is made available to seriously ill patients before being approved for general use.

Compensation claim

A claim filed mostly in accordance with national legislation, insurance regulations or other regulations, or with a contract by or on behalf of an employee, who has suffered a disabling injury, illness, or death arising out of and in the course of work.

Compliance

An alternative term for adherence.

Concentration

The relative content of a component (as a dissolved or dispersed material) of a solution, mixture, or dispersion that may be expressed in percentage by weight or by volume, in parts per million, or in grams per liter.

Conception

The fertilization of an egg (ovum) by a sperm, which usually occurs in the fallopian tubes.

Conception

The fertilization of an egg (ovum) by a sperm, which usually occurs in the fallopian tubes.

Conception

The process of becoming pregnant involving fertilization or implantation or both.

Concomitant

Two or more medicinal drugs given either at the same time, or almost at the same time, for instance one after the other, or on the same day.

Condom

A flexible sheath, usually made of thin rubber or latex, designed to cover the penis during sexual intercourse for contraceptive purposes or as a means of preventing sexually transmitted diseases.

Condom

A flexible sheath, usually made of thin rubber or latex, designed to cover the penis during sexual intercourse for contraceptive purposes or as a means of preventing sexually transmitted diseases.

Confidence

A feeling of trust and firm belief in yourself or others.

Confidence

A feeling of trust and firm belief in yourself or others.

Confidence Level

A statistical term used to express the probability that the result of a test or treatment is actual and not attributable to chance.

Confidentiality

Confidentiality means that the information provided to one person will only be known and used by that person and/or the research team.

Confounding Factor

A variable related to both the exposure and disease under study and that serves as a bridge to mediate an apparent association between exposure and disease where no real association exists; or, alternatively, it may mask a real association.

Congenital

Relating to a disease or physical abnormality present from birth.

Conical

Resembling a cone in shape.

Conjunctiva

The mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and continues over the forepart of the eyeball.

Consent

Consent is something that is always needed to make sure sex in a relationship is healthy and legal. Consent means that people are saying that they want to participate in a sexual activity. They have to say 'yes' both verbally and with their body.

Consent

Consent is something that is always needed to make sure sex in a relationship is healthy and legal. Consent means that people are saying that they want to participate in a sexual activity. They have to say 'yes' both verbally and with their body.

Constipation

A condition in which there is difficulty in emptying the bowels, usually associated with hardened or dry feces.

Contagious

An infection that can be spread easily, by casual contact.

Contraception

The deliberate use of artificial methods or other techniques to prevent pregnancy as a consequence of sexual intercourse.

Contraceptive Methods

Birth control by the use of devices (such as diaphragm or condom) drugs (the pill) or surgery (sterilization).

Contraceptive Methods

Birth control by the use of devices (such as diaphragm or condom) drugs (the pill) or surgery (sterilization).

Contraction

The strong, rhythmic tightening of the uterine muscle during labor. Regular strong and painful contractions dilate the cervix and push the baby through the birth canal.

Contraindication

Any circumstance or condition that makes a method of treatment inadvisable in a particular case.

Contraindication

Any circumstance or condition that makes a method of treatment inadvisable in a particular case.

Control group

A group of participants in a trial who receive standard treatment rather than the experimental treatment which is being tested.

Controlled trial

A clinical trial in which the group receiving an investigational therapy is compared to a control group that is not given the intervention under study. In a placebo-controlled trial, the control group is given an inactive substance (placebo); in an active control trial, the control group is given the best existing proven therapy (standard of care).

Controls

Measures designed to eliminate or reduce hazards or hazardous exposures. Examples include: engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment. Hazards can be controlled at the source, along the path to the worker, or at the worker.

Convenience sampling

Convenience sampling uses ways of selecting a sample which do not provide every unit in the population with an equal chance of ending up in the sample. Snowball sampling and purposive sampling are convenience sampling methods.

Convention, ILO

Legally-binding international treaties related to various issues related to work and workers. Once a Convention has been passed by ILO, Member States are required to submit it to their parliament for consideration for ratification.

Convulsion

Seizure.

Convulsion

A sudden, violent, irregular movement of the body, caused by involuntary contraction of muscles and associated especially with brain disorders, or the presence of certain toxins (epilepsy, eclampsia).

Cord (umbilical)

The flexible cord-like structure of tissue connecting the fetus to the placenta that brings oxygen and nutrients from the expectant mother to the fetus and removes waste products. The umbilical cord contains two arteries and one large vein.

Cord compression

The obstruction of the blood flow through the umbilical cord, secondary to pressure from an external object during labor and/or delivery, reducing blood flow and oxygen to the baby.

Cord prolapse

A complication that occurs prior to or during delivery of the fetus. The umbilical cord slips (prolapses) through the open cervix into the vagina ahead of the baby. The cord can then become compressed cutting off the fetus' blood supply.

Core

The internal portion of the HIV viral particle. The core proteins, encoded by the gag gene, include the glycoproteins p24 and p17.

Coronary heart disease (CHD)

Occurs when the walls of the coronary arteries become narrowed by a gradual fatty build-up. Heart attack and angina are the main symptoms of CHD.

Corrosive substance

A substance that will burn the skin or mucosa on contact.

Covert research

Covert research is done without full knowledge or consent of participants.

CPK

Creatine phosphokinase

Cramping

Spasmodic contractions of the uterus, such as those occurring during menstruation or labor, usually causing pain in the abdomen that may radiate to the lower back and thighs.

CRF

Circulating recombinant form

Cross-resistance

The development of resistance to one agent (e.g., a drug) which also confers resistance to another agent (e.g., a similar drug of the same class).

Crossover trial

A clinical trial where participants are switched from one therapy to the other treatment part way through the study.

Crowning

The appearance of the fetal scalp at the vaginal introitus (opening) which can be seen by midwives and medical staff.

Crude Rate

An expression of the observed number of health events per unit of the population at risk in a defined time period (e.g., crude mortality rate of 5.7 deaths per 1,000 people in 1985).

Cryptococcosis

A type of fungal infection usually affecting the membrane around the brain, causing meningitis. It can also affect the lungs and chest.

Cryptosporidiosis

Infection with the gut parasite Cryptosporidium parvum and other species, causing severe diarrhoea.

Crystallographic

Containing the form or structure of a crystal.

CSF

Colony stimulating factor, a secreted glycoprotein that binds to receptor proteins on the surfaces of hemopoietic stem cells and thereby activates intracellular signaling pathways that can cause cells to proliferate and differentiate into a specific kind of blood cell.

CTG (cardiotocograph)

The technical means of recording (-graphy) the fetal heartbeat (cardio-) and the uterine contractions (-toco-) during pregnancy, typically in the third trimester or labor.

CTX

Cotrimoxazole

Culture

Laboratory medium in which microbes can grow.

Cumulative trauma disorder

See repetitive strain injury.

Curettage

Surgical procedure involving the scrapping of the lining of the uterus normally to remove any residual products of conception following an incomplete miscarriage or abortion.

Cutaneous

Of, relating to, or affecting the skin.

Cutaneous

Of, relating to, or affecting the skin.

CXCR4

Also known as fusin, CXCR4 is a G-protein-linked chemokine receptor. A variety of CD4+ and CD4- cells, including those from the spleen, brain, and lungs, express CXCR4. Early in the epidemic, researchers discovered the primary HIV receptor, the CD4 molecule. A second molecule, CXCR4, is also required for certain strains of HIV to fuse with and enter into cells. Studies indicate a multistage interplay between HIV and two receptors on white blood cells. After binding to the receptor CD4, the virus fuses with CXCR4; this double clasp may then signal the receptors to move the virus into the cell.

CXR

Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray is an X-ray of the chest, lungs, heart, large arteries, ribs, and diaphragm.

CYP3A4

A liver enzyme that is part of the cytochrome p450 system and metabolizes many drugs.

Cytochrome p450 System

A set of liver enzymes that metabolize drugs and other substances. Some drugs inhibit or stimulate this system, which affects the breakdown and, therefore, blood levels of other drugs in the body. In such cases, dose adjustments may be necessary.

Cytokine

An intercellular chemical messenger protein released by white blood cells. Cytokines facilitate communication among immune system cells and between immune system cells and the rest of the body. Cytokines can stimulate or inhibit the growth and activity of various immune cells.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV, or Human Herpesvirus 5)

CMV infection often occurs in healthy individuals without causing symptoms. Symptoms develop in immunocompromised individuals (usually at CD4 counts <50 cells/mm3)

Cytotoxic

Harmful to cells.

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)

A lymphocyte that kills foreign cells marked for destruction by the cellular immune system.

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D

Deferred Therapy

Therapy given later in the course of disease, either after symptoms have appeared or certain clinical points have been reached. In a clinical trial, one arm may be given deferred treatment and compared to an arm that receives treatment from the start of the study.

Dehydration

A condition where there is not enough water in the body, often caused by excessive sweating, vomiting or diarrhea.

Deletion

In genetics, a chromosomal alteration in which a portion of the chromosome or the underlying DNA is lost. This can happen in nature or in the laboratory. A deletion is a type of mutation.

Delirium

Acute confusional state, reversible organic mental syndrome.

Dementia

Changes in mental function, co-ordination and personality resulting from direct effects of HIV infection in the brain.

Deming

William Edwards Deming (October 14, 1900 – December 20, 1993) was an American statistician, professor, author, lecturer, and consultant. He is perhaps best known for his work in Japan. There, from 1950 onward, he taught top management how to improve design (and thus service), product quality, testing and sales (the last through global markets) through various methods, including the application of statistical methods. (Wikipedia)

Dendritic cells

Antigen-presenting cells (APC) found in the skin and mucosal membranes and characterized by their finger-like or dendrite extensions.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

The molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a double-stranded molecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. The four nucleotides in DNA contain the bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In nature, base pairs form only between A and T and between G and C; thus the base sequence of each single strand can be deduced from that of its partner.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

The molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a double-stranded molecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. The four nucleotides in DNA contain the bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In nature, base pairs form only between A and T and between G and C; thus the base sequence of each single strand can be deduced from that of its partner.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

The molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a double-stranded molecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. The four nucleotides in DNA contain the bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In nature, base pairs form only between A and T and between G and C; thus the base sequence of each single strand can be deduced from that of its partner.

Deoxyribose

A pentose sugar C5H10O4 that is a structural element of DNA.

Dermatitis

Inflammation of the skin.

Dermatome/Dermatomic area

The area of skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers by a single posterior spinal root.

Desensitization

To make (a sensitized or hypersensitive individual) insensitive or nonreactive to a sensitizing agent.

DHS

Demographic and Health Survey, an international USAID project to collect and disseminate accurate, nationally representative data on health and populations in developing countries.

Diabetes

A condition characterised by raised concentration of sugar in the blood and urine, due to problems with the production or action of insulin.

Diabetes

A condition characterized by raised concentration of sugar in the blood and urine, due to problems with the production, or activity, of insulin.

Diagnosis

Description of the causes of a patient's medical problems.

Diagnosis

Description of the causes of a patient's medical problems.

Diaphoresis

Excessive sweating commonly associated with shock and other medical emergency conditions

Diaphragm

A shallow, dome-shaped, rubber cup with a flexible rim. It fits into the vagina and over the cervix, thus preventing the sperm from reaching the ovum. It is most effective when used with spermicidal cream jelly, or foam.

Diaphragm

A shallow, dome-shaped, rubber cup with a flexible rim. It fits into the vagina and over the cervix, thus preventing the sperm from reaching the ovum. It is most effective when used with spermicidal cream jelly, or foam.

Diaphragm

A birth control barrier method that covers the cervix and prevents sperm from reaching the egg.

Diarrhoea

Abnormal bowel movements, characterised by watery or frequent stools.

Diastasis recti

�The separation of the�two sides of the rectus�muscles of the abdominal wall

Dilation

The opening of the cervix. Dilation is measured as the diameter of the cervix in centimeters.

Dilation and curettage

A surgical procedure in which the cervix is mechanically dilated and the contents of the uterus removed. It is performed after an incomplete miscarriage or abortion.

Dimer

A composite molecule formed by the binding of two molecules. A heterodimer is protein composed of 2 different chains or subunits and a homodimer is composed of identical molecules.

Directly Observed Therapy (DOT)

A method of medication administration in which a health care provider or other observer watches the patient take each drug dose. DOT is most commonly used for tuberculosis treatment.

Disabling injury

An injury that prevents a person from coming to work or doing his or her usual job duties.

Discordant

Not having the same serostatus, for example a couple in which one partner is HIV-infected and the other is not.

Discrepancy

Inconsistency or a state of being at variance (discrepant).

Discussion

The act of talking about something with another person or a group of people, a conversation about something in which information, ideas, opinions etc. are exchanged.

Discussion

The act of talking about something with another person or a group of people, a conversation about something in which information, ideas, opinions etc. are exchanged.

Disease progression

The worsening of a disease.

Distal

Farthest from the center or from a central point of reference.

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid, the material in the nucleus of a cell where genetic information is stored.

DNA Fingerprinting

A technique that can be used in any species for identification, based upon the uniqueness of their DNA pattern.

DNA Kinase

An enzyme that catalyzes the addition of phosphate groups at the 5' terminus of DNA.

DNA Ladder

A set of precisely-sized DNA fragments that can be run on a gel, in parallel with test samples, to estimate the size of an unknown DNA fragment.

DNA Ligase

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a covalent bond between free single-stranded ends of DNA molecules during DNA replication and DNA repair.

DNA Polymerase

An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA from a DNA template and the deoxyribonucleotide precursors.

DNA Sequencing

The technique by which the specific sequence of bases forming a particular DNA region is deciphered.

DNA Vaccine

Vaccination in which the inoculating agent is a DNA construct. This DNA subsequently expresses a protein of a pathogen, which is in turn recognized by the host immune system, leading to an immune response that protects the host against the pathogen from which the DNA was derived.

Dnase (or Deoxyribonuclease)

One of a series of enzymes that can digest DNA.

Dosage Regimen

A formalized schedule by which drugs are administered, including the amount of drug, the number of doses per time period, and the time between doses.

Dosage Regimen

A formalized schedule by which drugs are administered, including the amount of drug, the number of doses per time period, and the time between doses.

Dose

Measured amount of a drug to be taken at one time.

Dose

Measured amount of a drug to be taken at one time.

Dose Escalation

The gradual increase of drug dosages to determine the amount that delivers the best balance of high efficacy and few side effects. Dose-escalation trials are clinical studies that monitor the effects of increasing dosages of a drug.

Dose-Response relationship

A phenomenon by which increased doses of a drug lead to increased effects, such that the response to a drug is directly related to the dose administered.

DOT (or Directly Observed Therapy)

A method of medication administration in which a health care provider or other observer watches the patient take each drug dose. DOT is most commonly used for tuberculosis treatment.

DOT (or Directly Observed Therapy)

A method of medication administration in which a health care provider or other observer watches the patient take each drug dose. DOT is most commonly used for tuberculosis treatment.

DOT (or Directly Observed Therapy)

A method of medication administration in which a health care provider or other observer watches the patient take each drug dose. DOT is most commonly used for tuberculosis treatment.

Double-Blind

A type of clinical trial in which neither the subject nor the investigator knows what treatment, if any, the subject is receiving. At the end of the trial, the ""code"" is broken and data are analyzed. Double-blinding is done to minimize bias due to the expectations of the subject and investigator.

Down regulation

Reduction of the rate at which a process occurs, a substance is released, etc.

Drug Resistance

The ability of some disease-causing microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and mycoplasma, to adapt themselves, grow, and even multiply in the presence of drugs that usually kill them.

Drug-Drug Interaction

A modification of the effect of a drug when administered with another drug. The effect may be an increase or decrease in the action of either substance, or it may be an adverse effect that is not normally associated with either drug.

DSM

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Many mental health professionals use this book to determine and help communicate a patient's diagnosis after an evaluation.

Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)

A method of scanning the body to determine bone density and fat distribution.

Dysphagia

Difficulty in swallowing.

Dysplasia

Abnormal growth of cells.

Dyspnea

Difficult or labored respiration.

Dysthymia

A chronic type of depression in which a person's moods are regularly low. However, it is not as extreme as other types of depression.

Dystocia

A slow or difficult labor or delivery caused by mechanical obstruction at the cervix, normally involving the fetal shoulder.

Dysuria

Difficult or painful discharge of urine.

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E

E, Eng, Engaged

The entrance of the largest diameter of the fetal head into the pelvic brim, the smallest diameter of the maternal pelvis.

Early intervention

Starting HIV treatment relatively early in the course of disease.

EC

Entric Coated

Eclampsia

A life-threatening complication of pregnancy. It is a condition that causes a pregnant woman to develop seizures or coma and can lead to death. It is usually characterized by a previous diagnosis of preeclampsia (high blood pressure and the presence of protein in the urine).

Ectopic pregnancy

A pregnancy in which the embryo begins to grow outside the uterus, often in one of the fallopian tubes.

Ectopy

a condition in which an organ or substance is not in its natural or proper place, such as an ectopic pregnancy that develops outside the uterus or an ectopic heartbeat.

Edema

An abnormal infiltration and excess accumulation of serous fluid in connective tissue or in a serous cavity.

Edema

An abnormal infiltration and excess accumulation of serous fluid in the connective tissue or in a serous cavity. Swelling and/or retention of fluid in body tissues.

Efficacy

How well something works.

Ejaculation

When semen comes out of a boy's or man's erect penis due to sexual excitement. A man does not have to ejaculate every time he has an erection.

Ejaculation

When semen comes out of a boy's or man's erect penis due to sexual excitement. A man does not have to ejaculate every time he has an erection.

ELISA (or Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay)

A type of enzyme immunoassay to determine the presence of antibodies to HIV in the blood or oral fluids. Repeatedly reactive (i.e., two or more) ELISA test results should be validated with an independent supplemental test of high specificity. The test is sensitive but not specific, and a positive ELISA is typically confirmed using a Western Blot assay.

ELISA (or Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay)

A type of enzyme immunoassay to determine the presence of antibodies to HIV in the blood or oral fluids. Repeatedly reactive (i.e., two or more) ELISA test results should be validated with an independent supplemental test of high specificity. The test is sensitive but not specific, and a positive ELISA is typically confirmed using a Western Blot assay.

ELISA (or Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay)

A type of enzyme immunoassay to determine the presence of antibodies to HIV in the blood or oral fluids. Repeatedly reactive (i.e., two or more) ELISA test results should be validated with an independent supplemental test of high specificity. The test is sensitive but not specific, and a positive ELISA is typically confirmed using a Western Blot assay.

Embryotoxin

An agent that is harmful or poisonous to unborn children up to the end of the eighth week of development. See also Teratogen.

Emergency plan

Detailed procedures for responding to an emergency, such as a fire or explosion, a chemical spill or an uncontrolled release of energy. An emergency plan is necessary to keep order and minimize the effects of the disaster.

Empathy

Intellectual and emotional awareness and understanding of another person's thoughts, feelings and behavior, even those that are distressing and disturbing.

Empiric Diagnosis (or Empiric Treatment)

Presumptive diagnosis evaluation and/or treatment based on observation and experience alone, without relying on laboratory test results or while awaiting laboratory results.

Encephalopathy

A disease or infection affecting the brain.

Endemic

The continuous presence of a disease in a geographic location, community, or population.

Endogenous

Originating within, relating to, or produced by the body.

Endoscopy

Viewing the inside of the body cavity with a flexible instrument using fibre optics.

Endotoxin

A toxin present inside a bacterial cell.

Endpoint

In a clinical trial, endpoint is an outcome measure used in evaluating drug, regimen or technique efficacy. Endpoints may be direct measures of clinical effect (benefit or lack of) or laboratory measurements expected to correlate meaningfully with clinical effect.

Engineering controls

A category of hazard control that uses physical/engineering methods to eliminate or minimize the hazard. Examples of engineering controls include: ventilation, isolation, elimination, enclosure, substitution and design of the workplace or equipment.

Engorgement

Swollen and tender breasts postpartum. Occurs when the mother's milk 'comes in' between two days and a week after childbirth.

Enteric

Associated with the gut.

Entero Viruses

A group of viruses, such as polio virus and Coxsackie, which are spread when feces end up in drinking water or when food becomes contaminated after having been prepared by an unsanitary cook. The mouth is the most important route for infection.

Enteropathy

Any disease of the intestine.

Enterprise

A company, business, firm, institution or organization designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers. It may imply for-profit business, not-for-profit organizations or agencies or self employed individuals.

Entry Inhibitor

A drug that interferes with HIV's ability to enter a cell.

Env

DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein, termed the rev-responsive element (rre). Also defined as the gene of HIV that encodes the proteins of the viral envelope or can refer to the proteins produced by the gene. (Cis-acting is a gene which regulates the transcription into mRNA of other genes nearby on the same chromosome by binding protein transcription factors which are necessary to turn transcription on or off.)

Envelope

The outer covering of a virus. The HIV envelope contains spikes and is composed of 2 protein subunits, gp120 and gp41, encoded by the env gene. The glycoprotein gp120 attaches itself to the CD4 surface protein, allowing HIV to infect certain cells.

Envelope protein

A protein present on the outer surface of retroviruses that interacts with a cell surface protein to facilitate the entry of the virus into the cell. Hence, the protein that determines the tropicity of the virus.

Enzyme

A protein which speeds up a chemical reaction.

Eosinophil

A white blood cell or other granulocyte with cytoplasmic inclusions readily stained by eosin.

Epidemic

Disease occurrence in an area that is in excess of normal expectancy.

Epidemiologic Surveillance

The ongoing and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about a disease or health condition.

Epidemiology

The study of the frequency, distribution, and behavior of a disease within a population.

Epidermis

The outer layers of the skin.

Episiotomy

A surgical incision made in the perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening and thus facilitate the delivery of the baby's head and avoid tearing of maternal tissues.

Epitope

A unique shape or marker carried on an antigen's surface that triggers a corresponding antibody response.

Epstein-Barr virus

The virus that causes oral hairy leukoplakia and glandular fever. Sometimes called mononucleosis.

EPTB

Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis

Equipoise

An ethical requirement of clinical trials, equipoise means that the researchers are not certain which arm will receive the best treatment.

Equivalence

It is well recognized that a number of factors other than quantity of drug present in a dose can determine the ultimate therapeutic usefulness of the drug preparation, and even the availability of drug to the site of action once the preparation has been given. Drugs may be generically equivalent but not therapeutically equivalent. Factors which affect therapeutic usefulness or efficacy of drug preparations include appearance, taste, disintegration and dissolution properties of the preparation, interaction of active materials with other ingredients including binders and solvents, pH, particle size, age of preparation, conditions of manufacture such as degree of tablet compression, and the nature and amount of coating of enteric-coated tablets.

Erectile dysfunction

A man's inability to have or maintain an erection, also known as ED or impotence.

Erection

The state in which the penis of a man becomes firm and swollen because of sexual excitement. An erection occurs when the penis fills with blood and becomes hard and straight. Erections happen sometimes as boys fantasize and think about sexual things, or sometimes for no reason at all. Boys do not have any control over when this will happen.

Erection

The state in which the penis of a man becomes firm and swollen because of sexual excitement. An erection occurs when the penis fills with blood and becomes hard and straight. Erections happen sometimes as boys fantasize and think about sexual things, or sometimes for no reason at all. Boys do not have any control over when this will happen.

Ergonomic principles

A concept whereby the work to be carried out is organized and specified – and tools and equipment designed and used – in such a way as to be matched with the physical and mental characteristics and capacity of the worker.

Ergonomics

See Occupational ergonomics.

Erroneous

Containing or characterized by error.

Erythema

Abnormal redness of the skin due to capillary congestion or a rash.

Erythropoietin

A natural hormone made in the kidneys to stimulate the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow.

Escape Variant (or escape mutant)

A microorganism (e.g., virus) that has mutated so that it has lost its sensitivity to a drug.

Esophagitis

Inflammation of the esophagus.

ESR

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

Essential Drug Lists (EDL):

WHO guidelines of essential drugs. http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en/index.html

Estrogen

A female steroid hormone that is produced by the ovaries and, in lesser amounts, by the adrenal cortex, placenta, and male testes. Estrogen helps control and guide sexual development, including the physical changes associated with puberty. It also influences the course of ovulation in the monthly menstrual cycle, lactation after pregnancy, aspects of mood, and the aging process. Production of estrogen changes naturally over the female lifespan, reaching adult levels with the start of puberty (menarche) and decreasing in middle age until menopause begins.

Estrogen

A female steroid hormone that is produced by the ovaries and, in lesser amounts, by the adrenal cortex, placenta, and male testes. Estrogen helps control and guide sexual development, including the physical changes associated with puberty. It also influences the course of ovulation in the monthly menstrual cycle, lactation after pregnancy, aspects of mood, and the aging process. Production of estrogen changes naturally over the female lifespan, reaching adult levels with the start of puberty (menarche) and decreasing in middle age until menopause begins.

Estrogen

A hormone produced in the ovaries that works in conjunction with progesterone to regulate menstruation.

Ethics committee

A panel of people which reviews any proposed clinical trial to ensure that the participants are protected from any foreseeable exploitation or harm. In the US, it is known as the Institutional Review Board.

Exclusion criteria

Reasons that would disqualify a person from joining a trial.

Exclusive breastfeeding

Breastfeeding a baby without supplementation of other liquids or formula.

Exfoliation

The action or process of exfoliating as a: the peeling of the horny layer of the skin; b: the shedding of surface components (as cells from internal body surfaces); c: the shedding of a superficial layer of bone or of a tooth or part of a tooth.

Exogenous

Coming from outside the body.

Exogenous DNA

DNA that originates and/or develops from outside the organism; examples include DNA from another organism and synthetic rDNA.

Exon

A polynucleotide sequence in a nucleic acid that codes information for protein synthesis and that is copied and spliced together with other such sequences to form messenger RNA.

Exonuclease

An enzyme that breaks down a nucleic acid by removing nucleotides one by one from the end of a chain.

Exotoxin

A toxic substance secreted by bacteria and released outside the bacterial cell.

Expanded Access

A program that makes experimental drugs available on a wide basis to patients who do not qualify for a clinical trial. In most cases, a drug with an expanded access program is already in the final stages of the approval process.

Expected date of delivery, EDD

Expected (estimated) date of delivery for baby's birth. It is normal for the baby to arrive up to two weeks before or after this date.

Explanatory research

Type of research which aims to understand a problem that has not been clearly defined before and aims to explain the cause of it. Explanatory research is often called causal research.

Exposure records

The records kept by employees themselves, an employer, occupational physician or occupational health nurse of an employee’s exposure to a hazardous material or physical agent in the workplace. These records show the time, level and length of exposure for each substance or agent involved.

Expressing breast milk

Removing milk from the breasts either by hand or with a machine.

Expression System

In HIV vaccine production, cells into which an HIV gene has been inserted to produce specific HIV proteins.

External cephalic version

A procedure used to turn a breech or transverse fetus to the cephalic (head-down) position in the uterus, prior to the onset of labor.

Extrapyramidal

Outside of the pyramidal tracts

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F

Facilitator

A facilitator helps a group work together to reach the best possible conclusions or decisions. The facilitator handles the practicalities and logistics of the group's meetings, including setting the date and time and reserving a meeting space. During meetings, the facilitator keeps the discussion moving and on track and may summarize things that have been discussed. He or she, however, is careful to remain impartial, never putting forth an opinion or encouraging the group toward a specific conclusion.

Facilitator

A facilitator helps a group work together to reach the best possible conclusions or decisions. The facilitator handles the practicalities and logistics of the group's meetings, including setting the date and time and reserving a meeting space. During meetings, the facilitator keeps the discussion moving and on track and may summarize things that have been discussed. He or she, however, is careful to remain impartial, never putting forth an opinion or encouraging the group toward a specific conclusion.

Failure to progress

The progress of labor has stopped, the cervix is not continuing to dilate and the fetus is not descending.

Fallopian Tubes

Two tubes that connect the ovaries to the womb through which the egg can travel.

Fallopian Tubes

Two tubes that connect the ovaries to the womb through which the egg can travel.

False negative/false positive

HIV test result that either gives a negative result when the person is HIV positive or a positive result when the person is HIV negative.

False-negative

An individual whose result on a test is negative, but who has the disease or condition as determined by the gold standard.

False-positive

An individual whose result on a test is positive, but who does not have the disease or condition as determined by the gold standard.

falseHIV negative result

The HIV test did not detect any antibodies in the blood. This either means that the person is not infected with the virus at the time of the test or that he/she is in the ‘window period’ (i.e. false negative, see above). It does not mean that he/she is immune to the virus.

falsePost-exposure prophylaxis/post-exposure prevention (PEP)

A short ARV course that reduces the likelihood of HIV infection in an HIV negative person after potential exposure to infected body fluids, e.g. a needle stick injury, rape. The drugs should only be prescribed by a qualified, health care practitioner. To be effective, the drugs must be started within 2 to 72 hours of the possible exposure; the earlier the treatment is started, the more effective it is.

Family - work interference

One type of work-family conflict; a form of role interference that occurs when family demands and responsibilities make it more difficult to fulfil work role responsibilities. See also Work - family interference.

Fasciitis

Necrotizing fasciitis or fasciitis necroticans, commonly known as ?flesh-eating bacteria"" is a rare infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues, easily spreading across the fascial plane within the subcutaneous tissue. Many types of bacteria can cause necrotizing fasciitis (e.g. Group A streptococcus, Vibrio vulnificus, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis), of which Group A streptococcus (also known as Streptococcus pyogenes) is the most common cause.

Fatal occupational injury

Occupational accident or injury leading to the death of a worker.

FDC

Fixed dose combinations of drugs

Febrile

Marked or caused by fever.

Febrile

Marked or caused by fever. Feverish.

Fecal

Of, relating to, or constituting feces.

Female condom

The female condom protects against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. The female condom is made of a thin, strong plastic called polyurethane. A newer version is made of a substance called nitrile and is much cheaper. These condoms fit inside the vagina. The condom has a ring on each end. The ring that is placed inside the vagina fits over the cervix, covering it with the protective rubber material. The other ring, which is open, rests outside of the vagina and covers the vulva. The female condom has the advantages that it is controlled by the woman and can be inserted several hours before intercourse. It is gradually gaining in popularity, and new products are appearing on the market.

Female condom

The female condom protects against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. The female condom is made of a thin, strong plastic called polyurethane. A newer version is made of a substance called nitrile and is much cheaper. These condoms fit inside the vagina. The condom has a ring on each end. The ring that is placed inside the vagina fits over the cervix, covering it with the protective rubber material. The other ring, which is open, rests outside of the vagina and covers the vulva. The female condom has the advantages that it is controlled by the woman and can be inserted several hours before intercourse. It is gradually gaining in popularity, and new products are appearing on the market.

Female reproductive organs

The female reproductive system includes both internal organs and external organs such as the clitoris and vulva. The internal organs are responsible for producing eggs for conception, the carrying of and delivery of infants, while the external organs permit sperm to enter the body and protect the internal organs from infection. The human female reproductive system (or female genital system) contains two main parts: the uterus, which hosts the developing fetus, produces vaginal and uterine secretions, and passes the male's sperm through to the fallopian tubes; and the ovaries, which produce the female's egg cells. These parts are internal; the vagina meets the external organs at the vulva, which includes the labia, clitoris and urethra. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the Fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the Fallopian tube into the uterus. If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, the sperm penetrate and merge with the egg, fertilizing it.

Female reproductive organs

The female reproductive system includes both internal organs and external organs such as the clitoris and vulva. The internal organs are responsible for producing eggs for conception, the carrying of and delivery of infants, while the external organs permit sperm to enter the body and protect the internal organs from infection. The human female reproductive system (or female genital system) contains two main parts: the uterus, which hosts the developing fetus, produces vaginal and uterine secretions, and passes the male's sperm through to the fallopian tubes; and the ovaries, which produce the female's egg cells. These parts are internal; the vagina meets the external organs at the vulva, which includes the labia, clitoris and urethra. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the Fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the Fallopian tube into the uterus. If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, the sperm penetrate and merge with the egg, fertilizing it.

Fertilization

Fertilization occurs when the sperm and egg combine to create an embryo. Fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tubes of a woman shortly after ovulation if sperm has been deposited into the reproductive tract. The fertilized egg then moves down the tube and implants into the uterus, initiating a pregnancy.

Fertilization

Fertilization occurs when the sperm and egg combine to create an embryo. Fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tubes of a woman shortly after ovulation if sperm has been deposited into the reproductive tract. The fertilized egg then moves down the tube and implants into the uterus, initiating a pregnancy.

Fetal distress

Refers to the presence of signs that suggest the fetus' condition is compromised. These signs include: abnormal changes in fetal hearth rate, and the presence of meconium liqor.

Fetal heart (FH)

Unborn baby's heart rate. The normal heart rate range is 120-160 bpm.

Fetal lie

Description of how the fetus is positioned within the uterus. Fetal lie describes the relationship between the long axis of the fetus with respect to the long axis of the mother. Possible fetal lies include a longitudinal lie, a transverse lie, and, on occasion, an oblique lie.

Fetal movements

Unborn baby's movements.

Fetal position

Description of how the fetus is positioned within the uterus.

Fetus

A developing human in the womb of a woman at a certain point after conception to birth.

Fetus

A developing human in the womb of a woman at a certain point after conception to birth.

Fetus/Fetus

Unborn baby.

Fever

An increase in the normal body temperature range normally above 37.8 C.

FH (H)

Fetal heart (heard).

FHI

Family Health International

FI

Fusion Inhibitor

FI

Fusion Inhibitor

FI

Fusion Inhibitor

Fibroids

Noncancerous growths in the uterus.

Fifths above brim

Position of unborn baby's head in relation to the mother's pelvis.

First Pass Effect

The biotransformation and/or excretion of a drug by hepatic (including biliary) mechanisms following absorption of the drug from the gastrointestinal tract, before the drug gains access to the systemic circulation.

First-line therapy

The regimen used when starting treatment for the first time.

First-line therapy

The regimen used when starting treatment for the first time.

First-line therapy

The regimen used when starting treatment for the first time.

Flaviviruses

This family of viruses derives its name from ""flavus,"" meaning yellow, and thus from the yellow fever virus. These viruses spread generally by mosquitoes bites. The yellow fever virus, West Nile Virus and dengue belong all to this virus family.

Floater

A moving spot that appears in the field of vision. Floaters may be an early sign of an eye disorder such as CMV retinitis.

FMF: FMNF

Fetal (baby) movements felt: fetal movements not felt.

Focus group

A focus group is a qualitative research method in which a trained moderator facilitates a guided discussion with a small group of people.

Focused (or concentrated) epidemic

an HIV epidemic in a country in which HIV has spread rapidly in a defined sub-population, but is not well-established in the general population. This epidemic state suggests active networks of risk within the sub-population. The future course of the epidemic is determined by the frequency and nature of links between highly infected sub-populations and the general population. Numerical proxy: HIV prevalence is consistently over 5% in at least one defined subpopulation but is below 1% in pregnant women in urban areas

Focused antenatal care

The model of antenatal care that is based on 4 goal orientated visits, which aims to holistically promote the health of mothers and their babies through targeted assessments of pregnant women to facilitate early identification and treatment of disease and pregnancy complications. It provides guidance and advice on birth preparedness, danger signs, nutrition, immunization, personal hygiene and family planning.

Foetus

An unborn baby.

Folic acid/ Folate

B vitamin, found in prenatal vitamins and green leafy vegetables. It prevents anemia and has been shown to reduce incidence of neural tube defects such as spina bifida.

Follicular Dendritic Cell (FDC)

A specialized cell found in the germinal centers of lymphoid organs. FDCs have threadlike tentacles that trap and concentrate foreign antigens for recognition by lymphocytes.

Folliculitis

Infection of the follicles, small sacs or glands in the skin such as those found at the base of hairs.

Fontanelle

The soft membranous space between the bones of the fetus or infant skull, where ossification is not complete and the sutures are not fully formed.

Footling breech

One of both feet of the fetus are positioned below the fetal buttock in the uterus.

Forceps

A large instrument with a pair of tong shaped broad gripping parts, used to encircle a baby's head and assist in vaginal birth.

Foremilk

The first milk to be drawn out of the breast which is lower in fats compared to hindmilk.

Foreskin

The fold of skin which covers the head (the glans) of the (uncircumcised) penis.

Foreskin

The fold of skin which covers the head (the glans) of the (uncircumcised) penis.

Frailty

- infirmity: the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age) - moral weakness

Frank breech

An intrauterine position of the fetus in which the buttocks present at the maternal pelvic inlet, and the legs are straight up in front of the body.

Free Drug

Drug that has not entered cells and can be found in the blood or other bodily fluids.

Free Radical

A molecule that contains at least one unpaired electron. Free radicals (reactive oxygen species) are a by-product of normal metabolism. They are highly reactive and bind with electrons from other molecules, potentially initiating chain reactions as successive molecules lose and gain electrons. The robbing of electrons by free radicals can disrupt normal cellular processes and cause cellular damage (oxidative stress).

FSGS ? focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

Scar tissue that forms in areas of the kidneys that filter harmful and/or unnecessary things out of the body. These areas are called glomeruli.

FSW

Female Sex Worker

FSW

Female Sex Worker

FSW

Female Sex Worker

Full term

A pregnancy between 39.0 and 40.6 weeks gestation

Full term, T, FT, term

Full term: the baby is ready to be born.

Fulminant

Coming on suddenly or with great severity.

Functional Genomics

The use of genetic technology to determine the function of newly discovered genes by determining their role in one or more model organisms. Functional genomics uses as its starting point the isolated gene whose function is to be determined, and then selects a model organism in which a homolog of that gene exists. This model organism can be as simple as a yeast cell or as complex as a nematode worm, fruitfly, or even a mouse. The gene is selectively inactivated or ""knocked out"" using a variety of genetic techniques, and the effect of its selective deletion on that organism is determined. By knocking out a gene in this way, its contribution to the function of the organism (and, by implication, its function in humans), can be determined. Functional genomics has proven particularly useful as a means of validating or testing novel therapeutic targets. In another approach, a whole set of genes may be systematically inactivated and the effect of this on a particular cellular function examined. In this approach, a new gene and its function are identified simultaneously.

Fundal height

The measurement of the size of the uterus used to assess fetal growth and development during pregnancy. It is measured from the top of the mother's uterus to the top of the mother's pubic symphysis in centimeters.

Fundal/ fundus

The rounded top of the uterus.

Fundoscopic exam

Examination of the fundus of the eye by using an ophthalmoscope (an instrument for viewing the interior of the eye).

Fungi

A group of organisms, including the yeasts which cause candidiasis and cryptococcosis.

Fusin (or CXCR4)

A co-receptor on the surface of certain T-cells that, along with the CD4 molecule, allows HIV to penetrate and infect a cell.

Fusion inhibitor

Anti-HIV drug targeting the point where HIV locks on to an immune cell.

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G

G6PD (or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase)

A human red blood cell enzyme, a deficiency of which can cause severe anemia. People with G6PD deficiency should not take certain medications (e.g., dapsone) due to the risk of developing anemia.

Gall bladder

The organ connected to the liver which stores bile.

Gamma Interferon

A T cell-derived stimulating substance that suppresses virus reproduction, stimulates other T cells, and activates macrophage cells.

Ganciclovir

An antiviral drug related to acyclovir and used especially in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in immunocompromised patients.

Gastritis

Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach.

Gastrointestinal

Relating to or affecting the stomach, gut or bowel.

Gastroscopy

Examination of the stomach using a fibre optic device.

Gel electrophoresis

Electrophoresis in which molecules (as proteins and nucleic acids) migrate through a gel (usually a polyacrylamide gel) and separate into bands according to size.

Gender

Refers to the economic, social and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male or female at a particular point in time and in a particular social setting.

Gender

Refers to the economic, social and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male or female at a particular point in time and in a particular social setting.

Gender discrimination

Refers to any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of socially constructed gender roles and norms that prevent a person from enjoying full human rights.

Gender discrimination

Refers to any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of socially constructed gender roles and norms that prevent a person from enjoying full human rights.

Gender equality

Equal treatment of women and men in laws and policies, and equal access to resources and services within families, communities and society at large.

Gender equality

Equal treatment of women and men in laws and policies, and equal access to resources and services within families, communities and society at large.

Gender equity

The process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures must often be available to compensate for women's historical and social disadvantages, which prevent women and men from otherwise operating on a level playing field. Equity leads to equality.

Gender equity

The process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures must often be available to compensate for women's historical and social disadvantages, which prevent women and men from otherwise operating on a level playing field. Equity leads to equality.

Gender norms

Gender norms define what society considers male and female behavior, and it leads to the formation of gender roles, which are the roles males and females are expected to take in society.

Gender norms

Gender norms define what society considers male and female behavior, and it leads to the formation of gender roles, which are the roles males and females are expected to take in society.

Gender roles

A set of social and behavioral norms that are generally considered appropriate for either a man or a woman in a social or interpersonal relationship.

Gender roles

A set of social and behavioral norms that are generally considered appropriate for either a man or a woman in a social or interpersonal relationship.

Gender stereotypes

Simplistic generalizations about the gender attributes, differences, and roles of individuals and/or groups. Stereotypes can be positive or negative, but they rarely communicate accurate information about others. When people automatically apply gender assumptions to others regardless of evidence to the contrary, they are gender stereotyping.

Gender stereotypes

Simplistic generalizations about the gender attributes, differences, and roles of individuals and/or groups. Stereotypes can be positive or negative, but they rarely communicate accurate information about others. When people automatically apply gender assumptions to others regardless of evidence to the contrary, they are gender stereotyping.

Gene

A DNA sequence which determines the structure of a protein.

Gene

A DNA sequence which determines the structure of a protein.

Gene

A DNA sequence which determines the structure of a protein.

Gene Product

The protein encoded by a specific gene.

Gene Therapy

An approach to preventing and/or treating disease by altering cellularl genes (through introduction, replacement, or removal) or otherwise manipulating genetic material. Examples include adding a gene to a cell to produce a specific missing protein, using antisense molecules to prevent viral replication, and altering CD4 cells to make them resistant to HIV infection. Genes may be introduced by direct injection or using a harmless viral vector to deliver genes into cells. Reagents known as liposomes can also carry therapeutic genes into cells.

General ventilation

See Ventilation.

Generalized epidemic

an HIV epidemic in a country in which HIV is firmly established in the general population. Although sub-populations at high risk may contribute disproportionately to the spread of HIV, sexual networking in the general population is sufficient to sustain an epidemic independent of sub-populations at higher risk of infection. Numerical proxy: HIV prevalence consistently over 1% in pregnant women. Within generalized epidemics, there is a large range of HIV prevalence, including countries with HIV prevalence greater than 15%.

Genetic barrier

The number of mutations required to overcome drug-selective pressure

Genital Herpes

Genital and oral herpes are caused by a virus called the herpes simplex virus. The virus can cause small, painful sores (often called cold sores) on the genitals (genital herpes) or around the mouth (oral herpes). Herpes can spread from genitals to genitals, mouth to genitals and genitals to mouth. Often a person can be infected with herpes and not have any symptoms. Alternatively, they may have mild symptoms that are mistaken for something else. When someone does have typical symptoms, the infection begins as blisters that then become sores, which are usually oozing and very painful. These sores can appear anywhere around the mouth, genitals or anus. During the first ""outbreak"" of sores, they typically dry up and heal in about 12 days. Later on, outbreaks are generally shorter and milder. There is no cure for herpes, but there are highly effective medicines that can help reduce the pain, control the number of outbreaks, shorten the length of outbreaks and lower the risk of passing herpes to a sexual partner.

Genital Herpes

Genital and oral herpes are caused by a virus called the herpes simplex virus. The virus can cause small, painful sores (often called cold sores) on the genitals (genital herpes) or around the mouth (oral herpes). Herpes can spread from genitals to genitals, mouth to genitals and genitals to mouth. Often a person can be infected with herpes and not have any symptoms. Alternatively, they may have mild symptoms that are mistaken for something else. When someone does have typical symptoms, the infection begins as blisters that then become sores, which are usually oozing and very painful. These sores can appear anywhere around the mouth, genitals or anus. During the first ""outbreak"" of sores, they typically dry up and heal in about 12 days. Later on, outbreaks are generally shorter and milder. There is no cure for herpes, but there are highly effective medicines that can help reduce the pain, control the number of outbreaks, shorten the length of outbreaks and lower the risk of passing herpes to a sexual partner.

Genital herpes

A virus that affects the genital area. A mother with untreated genital herpes can pass the infection onto her newborn during childbirth.

Genitals

The sexual organs, especially the sexual organs on the outside of the body. With men: the penis, with women: the vagina.

Genitals

The sexual organs, especially the sexual organs on the outside of the body. With men: the penis, with women: the vagina.

Genitals

External sex organs of the male and female.

Genome (or adjective genomic)

The unique genetic code or hereditary material of an organism, carried by a set of chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell. The human genome contains an estimated 50,000-100,000 genes; the genome of HIV contains 9 genes.

Genotype

The genetic make-up of an organism.

Gestation

Number of weeks pregnant.

Gestational age

Describes how far along the pregnancy is. It is measured in weeks, from the first day of the woman's last menstrual cycle to the current date. A normal pregnancy can range from 37 to 42 weeks duration.

Gestational diabetes

A condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose (blood sugar) levels during pregnancy. The condition normally resolves after childbirth.

GFATM

Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

Giardiasis

An illness caused by the gut parasite Giardia lamblia.

Glaucoma

Disease of the eye marked by increased pressure within the eyeball that can result in damage to the optic disk and gradual loss of vision.

Globulins

Proteins found in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

Glucocorticosteroids

A class of steroid hormones characterized by an ability to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) . They are predominantly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, as well as fat and protein metabolism and many other activities (e.g. alteration of connective tissue response to injury and inhibition of inflammatory and allergic reactions); some also exhibit varying degrees of mineralocorticoid activity. In humans, the most important glucocorticoids are cortisol (hydrocortisone) and cortisone.

Glucose

A form of sugar found in the bloodstream. All sugars and starches are converted into glucose before they are absorbed.

Glucose

A form of sugar present in the blood.

Glucose screen

Blood test to see how well the body uses sugar. It is a test for gestational diabetes, a condition that sometimes develops during pregnancy and may be a problem for the woman and unborn baby.

Glucosuria

Glucose (sugar) in the urine.

Glutathione

A natural chemical used by the body to work against oxidative stress.

Glycogen

Glucose stored in cells, predominantly found in the liver.

GM-CSF (Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor)

A hormone that stimulates growth of granulocytes and macrophages. Synthetic GM-CSF is used to treat or prevent neutropenia caused by certain drugs. Side effects include fever, rash and bone pain.

GoB

Government of Bangladesh

Gold standard

The criterion used to unequivocally define the presence of a condition or disease under study.

Gonorrhea

A sexually transmitted disease caused by the gonococcal bacteria that affects the mucous membrane of the genital and urinary tracts and is characterized by an acute discharge and painful or difficult urination, though women often have no symptoms. Gonorrhea can be treated and cured with antibiotics.

Gonorrhea

A sexually transmitted disease caused by the gonococcal bacteria that affects the mucous membrane of the genital and urinary tracts and is characterized by an acute discharge and painful or difficult urination, though women often have no symptoms. Gonorrhea can be treated and cured with antibiotics.

Gonorrhea

A sexually transmitted disease that can lead to preterm delivery or serious eye problems for the baby, among other ailments, if contracted and or not treated during pregnancy.

GP120

Glycoprotein 120 is a protein that protrudes from the surface of HIV and binds to CD4+ T cells. This is HIV's docking mechanism.

GP120

Glycoprotein 120 is a protein that protrudes from the surface of HIV and binds to CD4+ T cells. This is HIV's docking mechanism.

GP120

Glycoprotein 120 is a protein that protrudes from the surface of HIV and binds to CD4+ T cells. This is HIV's docking mechanism.

GP160

Glycoprotein 160 is located on the outer envelope of HIV and enables the virus to enter human cells. GP160 is produced by the viral env gene and cleaved into gp120 and gp41 fragments.

GP160

Glycoprotein 160 is located on the outer envelope of HIV and enables the virus to enter human cells. GP160 is produced by the viral env gene and cleaved into gp120 and gp41 fragments.

GP160

Glycoprotein 160 is located on the outer envelope of HIV and enables the virus to enter human cells. GP160 is produced by the viral env gene and cleaved into gp120 and gp41 fragments.

GP161

Glycoprotein 161 is HIV's precursor protein, which is split into the gp41 and gp120 surface protein by enzymes during a late stage of the replication process.

GP161

Glycoprotein 161 is HIV's precursor protein, which is split into the gp41 and gp120 surface protein by enzymes during a late stage of the replication process.

GP161

Glycoprotein 161 is HIV's precursor protein, which is split into the gp41 and gp120 surface protein by enzymes during a late stage of the replication process.

GP41

A protein on the outer surface of HIV that can pierce the surface of a T cell. Embedded in the HIV envelope are numerous cellular proteins, as well as mushroom-shaped HIV proteins that protrude from the surface. Each ""mushroom"" consists of a cap made of four gp120 molecules called gp120, and the stem, consisting of four gp41 molecules.

Gram Stain

A method used to identify bacteria by injecting a crystal violet stain that is either lost or retained when the bacteria are rinsed, depending on the characteristics of the bacterial cell wall.

Gram-negative

Refers to bacteria that have a thick double cell wall that contains lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin; these bacteria lose a violet stain when rinsed.

Gram-positive

Refers to bacteria that have a single cell wall that does not contain lipopolysaccharide; these bacteria retain a violet stain when rinsed.

Granulocytes

See neutrophil.

Granulocytopenia

A shortage of neutrophils.

Granuloma

An inflammatory lesion containing phagocytes.

Gravida

The number of times you have been pregnant, including this pregnancy. Primigravida means first, multigravida means more than one pregnancy.

Group B streptococcus

A common bacterium often carried in the intestines or lower genital tract. Group B streptococcus is usually harmless in adults. In newborns, however, it can cause a serious illness known as group B strep disease.

Group discussion

A group discussion elicits responses from students on a particular topic or issue and provides many teaching opportunities to enhance knowledge or correct misinformation.

Group discussion

A group discussion elicits responses from students on a particular topic or issue and provides many teaching opportunities to enhance knowledge or correct misinformation.

Gynaecology

Study of medical conditions specific to women's reproductive organs.

Gynaecology

Study of medical conditions specific to women's reproductive organs.

Gynaecology

Study of medical conditions specific to women's reproductive organs.

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H

HAART (or Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)

A term for aggressive anti-HIV treatment composed of several drugs from one class or a combination of drugs from several classes.

HAART (or Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)

A term for aggressive anti-HIV treatment composed of several drugs from one class or a combination of drugs from several classes.

HAART (or Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)

A term for aggressive anti-HIV treatment composed of several drugs from one class or a combination of drugs from several classes.

HAART (or Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)

A term for aggressive anti-HIV treatment composed of several drugs from one class of ARVs or a combination of ARV drugs from several classes.

Half-Life

The time required for half the amount of an agent (e.g., drug, virus, cell type) to be eliminated from the body.

Hazard

A physical or psychosocial condition, object or agent that has the potential to cause harm to a worker and/or to cause damage to property or environment.

Hazardous material

Any substance that may produce adverse health and/or safety effects to people or the environment.

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HCW

Healthcare workers.

HCW

Healthcare workers.

HCW

Healthcare workers.

Health and safety program

A systematic combination of activities, procedures, and facilities designed to ensure and maintain a safe and healthy workplace.

Health and safety representative

A health and safety representative is selected following mostly national legal prescriptions that are present in many countries. A health and safety representative has prescribed responsibilities and powers. See joint health and safety committee.

Health risk assessment / health risk appraisal

A type of assessment tool that collects information from health status measures (e.g. BMI, blood cholesterol, nutritional analysis, heart rate response to exercise). The assessment is usually based on clinical reports/measures and/or self-reported information on health habits. In most cases, a health risk assessment requires a professional. The assessment usually results in individualized results and an aggregate report for the workplace. The term health risk assessment is sometimes used in Occupational Health in a different meaning to refer to an assessment of the health risks in a workplace through hazard and risk identification and exposure assessment. Consequently the assessment results in a feedback to the worker, and the program offers the worker an intervention to promote health, sustain function or prevent disease. See also risk assessment. Rantanen uses the terms occupational health risk assessment, in which he includes the identification of occupational health hazards (as a result of surveillances) and workers exposed to specific hazards. Then an analysis of how the hazard may affect the worker (ways of entry and type of exposure, threshold limit values, dosage/ response, relationships, adverse health effects it may cause, etc.) followed by the determination of intensity (level) and magnitude (volume) of the risk. The identification of individuals and groups with special vulnerabilities is the next step, followed by an evaluation of available hazard prevention and control measures, and the making of conclusions and recommendations for the management and control of risks. Finally, the assessment of an individual worker’s health risk is made by combining information from health surveillance and from health examinations.

Heartburn (indigestion)

A burning sensation felt in the chest caused by acid regurgitation into the esophagus.

HEENT

Head Ears Eyes Nose Throat

Helper cell

An alternative name for CD4 T cells.

Helper cell

An alternative name for CD4 T cells.

Helper cell

An alternative name for CD4 T cells.

Hematocrit

Measurement of the proportion of red cells in the blood.

Hematocrit

Measurement of the proportion of red cells in the blood.

Hematology

Study of blood conditions. Also used to describe a range of biochemical tests carried out on the blood.

Hematology

Study of blood conditions. Also used to describe a range of biochemical tests carried out on the blood.

Hemoglobin

Red-coloured, oxygen-carrying chemical in red blood cells.

Hemoglobin

Red-coloured, oxygen-carrying chemical in red blood cells.

Hemolytic disease of the newborn

A severe form of anemia caused in a fetus or newborn infant by incompatibility with the mother's blood type. This typically occurs when the mother is rhesus negative and produces antibodies which attack rhesus positive fetal blood through the placenta.

Hemophilia

Inherited illness in which the blood does not always clot, often requiring injections of blood clotting agents.

Hemophilia

Inherited illness in which the blood does not always clot, often requiring injections of blood clotting agents.

Hemorrhage

A profuse discharge of blood. In pregnancy, this normally occurs through from the uterus or placenta.

Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn

Also known as Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding (VKDB), it is a coagulation disturbance in newborns due to vitamin K deficiency.

Hepatic

To do with the liver.

Hepatic

Issues (usually medical) concerning the liver.

Hepatitis

Inflammation or infection of the liver.

Hepatitis

Inflammation or infection of the liver.

Hepatitis B

A type of virus that infects the liver (HBV, hepatitis B virus).

Hepatitis B and C

The word hepatitis means 'inflammation of the liver'. Hepatitis B and C can be sexually transmitted and can result in serious liver damage, even death. Infection occurs through contact with infected blood, semen, vaginal fluids or saliva. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, headache, fever, dark urine and jaundice. Although some people have no symptoms, some people can become very ill.

Hepatitis B and C

The word hepatitis means 'inflammation of the liver'. Hepatitis B and C can be sexually transmitted and can result in serious liver damage, even death. Infection occurs through contact with infected blood, semen, vaginal fluids or saliva. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, headache, fever, dark urine and jaundice. Although some people have no symptoms, some people can become very ill.

Hepatosplenomegaly

Enlargement of the liver and spleen.

Hepatotoxicity

Side-effects affecting the liver.

Herpes simplex

A viral infection which may cause sores around the mouth or genitals.

Herpes simplex

A viral infection which may cause sores around the mouth or genitals.

Herpes Virus

A group of viruses that may act as opportunistic pathogens and/or cofactors in HIV pathogenesis. They include: HHV-1 (also known as herpes simplex virus-1/HSV-1) causes cold sores and fever blister and can be activated by immune suppression; HHV-2 (also known as HSV-2) causes painful sores of the anus or genitals and is a precursor of cervical cancer; HHV-3 (also known as varicella zoster, HVV) causes chickenpox and may reappear in adults as shingles; HHV-4 (also known as Epstein-Barr Virus/EBV); HHV-5 (also known as cytomegalovirus/CMV); HHV-6 is associated with neuropathy, chronic fatigue syndrome and certain autoimmune diseases; HHV-7 infects human T-cells, but is not known to cause disease; HHV-8 is also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/KSHV.

Herpes Virus

A group of viruses that may act as opportunistic pathogens and/or cofactors in HIV pathogenesis. They include: HHV-1 (also known as herpes simplex virus-1/HSV-1) causes cold sores and fever blister and can be activated by immune suppression; HHV-2 (also known as HSV-2) causes painful sores of the anus or genitals and is a precursor of cervical cancer; HHV-3 (also known as varicella zoster, HVV) causes chickenpox and may reappear in adults as shingles; HHV-4 (also known as Epstein-Barr Virus/EBV); HHV-5 (also known as cytomegalovirus/CMV); HHV-6 is associated with neuropathy, chronic fatigue syndrome and certain autoimmune diseases; HHV-7 infects human T-cells, but is not known to cause disease; HHV-8 is also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/KSHV.

Herpes Virus

A group of viruses that may act as opportunistic pathogens and/or cofactors in HIV pathogenesis. They include: HHV-1 (also known as herpes simplex virus-1/HSV-1) causes cold sores and fever blister and can be activated by immune suppression; HHV-2 (also known as HSV-2) causes painful sores of the anus or genitals and is a precursor of cervical cancer; HHV-3 (also known as varicella zoster, HVV) causes chickenpox and may reappear in adults as shingles; HHV-4 (also known as Epstein-Barr Virus/EBV); HHV-5 (also known as cytomegalovirus/CMV); HHV-6 is associated with neuropathy, chronic fatigue syndrome and certain autoimmune diseases; HHV-7 infects human T-cells, but is not known to cause disease; HHV-8 is also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/KSHV.

Herpes Virus

A group of viruses that may act as opportunistic pathogens and/or cofactors in HIV pathogenesis. They include: HHV-1 (also known as herpes simplex virus-1/HSV-1) that causes cold sores and fever blister and can be activated by immune suppression; HHV-2 (also known as HSV-2) that causes painful sores of the anus or genitals and is a precursor of cervical cancer; HHV-3 (also known as varicella zoster, HVV) that causes chickenpox and may reappear in adults as shingles; HHV-4 (also known as Epstein-Barr Virus/EBV); HHV-5 (also known as cytomegalovirus/CMV); HHV-6 is associated with neuropathy, chronic fatigue syndrome and certain autoimmune diseases; HHV-7 infects human T-cells, but is not known to cause disease; HHV-8 is also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/KSHV.

Heterozygous

An individual having one abnormal gene is termed heterozygous for that gene. In HIV infection, the delta-32 mutation in the gene encoding the CCR5 protein results in a defective receptor site that can block entry of the virus; thus, some individuals who have inherited one copy of this mutation (and are heterozygous for CCR5-delta-32) show greater resistance to the virus, and if HIV-infected, experience a delayed progression of infection.

Hickman catheter

A type of catheter that is surgically implanted, with one end leading into a large vein in the chest, and the other end remaining outside the chest. HICKMAN is a registered trade mark of C R Bard Inc.

Hindmilk

The milk that a baby gets after the first few minutes of nursing; it is lower in volume than foremilk, but higher in calories and fat.

Histology

Examining a sample of cells under a microscope to determine if they are normal or if there is evidence of infections or tumours.

Historical control

A comparison group of people not taking an experimental drug, taken from previous clinical trials.

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus, the virus which causes AIDS. There are two variants: HIV-1, and HIV-2. HIV-1 is by far the most common world-wide. See subtype for more information.

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus, the virus which causes immunodeficiency and AIDS. There are two variants: HIV-1, and HIV-2. HIV-1 is by far the most common world-wide. See subtype for more information.

HIV confirmation tests

According to WHO/UNAIDS recommendations, all positive HIV test results (whether ELISA [enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay] or simple/rapid tests) should be confirmed using a second, different test.

HIV counseling

Counseling is offered before and after an HIV test in order to help individuals understand their risk behavior and cope with an HIV positive result or to stay HIV negative. The counseling service also links individuals to options for treatment, care and support, where available, and provides information on how to stay as healthy as possible and how to minimize the risk of transmission to others. Test results are confidential. Usually the testing package ensures that: the HIV test is voluntary; pre- and post-test counseling is offered; informed consent is obtained; and HIV tests are performed using approved HIV test kits and following testing protocols.

HIV counseling

Counseling is offered before and after an HIV test in order to help individuals understand their risk behavior and cope with an HIV positive result or to stay HIV negative. The counseling service also links individuals to options for treatment, care and support, where available, and provides information on how to stay as healthy as possible and how to minimize the risk of transmission to others. Test results are confidential. Usually the testing package ensures that: the HIV test is voluntary; pre- and post-test counseling is offered; informed consent is obtained; and HIV tests are performed using approved HIV test kits and following testing protocols.

HIV counseling

Counseling is offered before and after an HIV test in order to help individuals understand their risk behavior and cope with an HIV positive result or to stay HIV negative. The counseling service also links individuals to options for treatment, care and support, where available, and provides information on how to stay as healthy as possible and how to minimize the risk of transmission to others. Test results are confidential. Usually the testing package ensures that: the HIV test is voluntary; pre- and post-test counseling is offered; informed consent is obtained; and HIV tests are performed using approved HIV test kits and following testing protocols.

HIV positive result

A positive HIV test result means that a person has anti-HIV antibodies in his/her blood and is infected with HIV. It does not mean that he/she has AIDS.

HIV test

A test of body fluids for the presence of anti-HIV antibodies. There are two main methods of HIV testing: HIV ELISA (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay) test: This is the most efficient test for testing large numbers per day, but requires laboratory facilities with equipment, maintenance staff and a reliable power supply; Simple/rapid HIV tests: These do not require special equipment or highly trained staff and are as accurate as ELISA. Rapid tests will usually give results in approximately 30 minutes and are easy to perform.

HIV test

A test of body fluids for the presence of anti-HIV antibodies. There are two main methods of HIV testing: HIV ELISA (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay) test: This is the most efficient test for testing large numbers per day, but requires laboratory facilities with equipment, maintenance staff and a reliable power supply; Simple/rapid HIV tests: These do not require special equipment or highly trained staff and are as accurate as ELISA. Rapid tests will usually give results in approximately 30 minutes and are easy to perform.

HIV test

A test of body fluids for the presence of anti-HIV antibodies. There are two main methods of HIV testing: HIV ELISA (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay) test: This is the most efficient test for testing large numbers per day, but requires laboratory facilities with equipment, maintenance staff and a reliable power supply; Simple/rapid HIV tests: These do not require special equipment or highly trained staff and are as accurate as ELISA. Rapid tests will usually give results in approximately 30 minutes and are easy to perform.

HIV/AIDS

HIV is the abbreviation for the term: Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is the most severe of all STDs. It causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). HIV enters and destroys white blood cells that protect the body and prevents them from fighting microbes that cause infections. HIV infection eventually progresses to AIDS, when the immune system is so weak that it succumbs to infections and certain types of cancers. Currently, there is no known cure for AIDS. People take antiretroviral drugs in order to relieve symptoms and to slow down the progression to AIDS. Antiretroviral drugs, or what doctors call ""ARVs"" (antiretrovirals), kill HIV in a range of ways. Today, there are several different types of antiretroviral drugs that inhibit HIV from replicating (reproducing) and infecting the person's white blood cells.

HIV/AIDS

HIV is the abbreviation for the term: Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is the most severe of all STDs. It causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). HIV enters and destroys white blood cells that protect the body and prevents them from fighting microbes that cause infections. HIV infection eventually progresses to AIDS, when the immune system is so weak that it succumbs to infections and certain types of cancers. Currently, there is no known cure for AIDS. People take antiretroviral drugs in order to relieve symptoms and to slow down the progression to AIDS. Antiretroviral drugs, or what doctors call ""ARVs"" (antiretrovirals), kill HIV in a range of ways. Today, there are several different types of antiretroviral drugs that inhibit HIV from replicating (reproducing) and infecting the person's white blood cells.

HLA

Human Leukocyte Antigen, any of various proteins that are encoded by genes of the major histocompatibility complex in humans and are found on the surface of many cell types (as white blood cells).

HNPSP

Health Nutrition and Population sector Programme

Holistic care

Treats the patient as a whole person, not just as a medical case. This approach focuses not only on physical care, but also psychological (emotional) and social care.

Homeopathy

A therapy which aims to treat illness using tiny quantities of the substance that caused the illness, or of a substance that causes similar symptoms.

Homozygous

An individual who has two copies of an abnormal gene at a given site on a chromosome is considered homozygous for that gene. In HIV infection, the delta-32 mutation in the gene encoding the CCR5 protein results in a defective receptor site that can block entry of the virus; thus, adults who are homozygous for CCR5-delta-32 (that is, those who inherited a mutant gene from both parents) appear to be highly resistant to HIV-1 infection, and when infected, have slower disease progression.

Hormone

A chemical which stimulates or suppresses cell and tissue activity.

Hormone

A chemical substance produced by glands in the body to stimulate certain activities carried out by cells or organs in the body.

Hormones

Hormones are chemical substances that act like messenger molecules in the body. After being made in one part of the body, they travel to other parts of the body where they help control how cells and organs do their work. For example, insulin is a hormone that's made by the beta cells in the pancreas. When it's released into the blood, insulin helps regulate how the cells of the body use glucose (a type of sugar) for energy.

Hormones

Hormones are chemical substances that act like messenger molecules in the body. After being made in one part of the body, they travel to other parts of the body where they help control how cells and organs do their work. For example, insulin is a hormone that's made by the beta cells in the pancreas. When it's released into the blood, insulin helps regulate how the cells of the body use glucose (a type of sugar) for energy.

Horseradish peroxidase

Peroxidase that occurs in the root of the horseradish, that produces a distinctive color when exposed to an appropriate solution, and that is used as a label for antibody-antigen complexes and as a tracer to follow the course of individual neurons since it is transported by most neural pathways.

HSV

Herpes simplex virus. There are two herpesviruses, HSV-1 or HSV-2, that cause herpes simplex.

HSV

Herpes simplex virus. There are two herpesviruses, HSV-1 or HSV-2, that cause herpes simplex.

HSV

Herpes simplex virus. There are two herpesviruses, HSV-1 or HSV-2, that cause herpes simplex.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

A hormone produced by the embryo and thought to be related to nausea in early pregnancy.

Human papilloma virus (HPV)

A group of wart-causing viruses which are also responsible for cancer of the cervix and some anal cancers.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

There are two types of HPV. The first type is the 'low-risk' type. They cause small, painless bumps (warts) around the genitals (in a female this means on or near the vulva, vagina, or cervix; in a male this means near or on the penis or scrotum), anus. Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. So someone can be infected and pass the disease on to another person without knowing. However, some people do have visible warts. The second type of HPV is the 'high-risk' type. These types usually go away without treatment, and usually do not cause symptoms. There is no cure that will get rid of HPV completely. Treatments can reduce the number of warts ' or help them go away faster. When the warts disappear, the virus is still there, although it may not spread as easily.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

There are two types of HPV. The first type is the 'low-risk' type. They cause small, painless bumps (warts) around the genitals (in a female this means on or near the vulva, vagina, or cervix; in a male this means near or on the penis or scrotum), anus. Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. So someone can be infected and pass the disease on to another person without knowing. However, some people do have visible warts. The second type of HPV is the 'high-risk' type. These types usually go away without treatment, and usually do not cause symptoms. There is no cure that will get rid of HPV completely. Treatments can reduce the number of warts ' or help them go away faster. When the warts disappear, the virus is still there, although it may not spread as easily.

Hydraminos

A condition in which excessive amniotic fluid accumulates during pregnancy.

Hydrocephalus

A congenital birth defect in which excessive fluid gathers in the fetus and baby's brain.

Hydrophobic

Resistant to or avoiding water.

Hygiene practices

A broad term for personal health habits that may reduce or prevent the exposure of a worker to chemical or biological substances. Hygiene practices include e.g.: not smoking, not eating or drinking in the work area, washing up before breaks and meals, removing contaminated clothing before leaving work and keeping street clothes separate from contaminated work clothing. See Industrial hygiene, where another concept of the term hygiene is described as a science that deals with the anticipation, recognition, evaluation (measurement), and control of hazards in the physical work environment. Also known as Occupational Hygiene.

Hyper

Prefix meaning higher than usual.

Hyper

A prefix to terms meaning higher than usual e.g. hypertension (higher blood pressure than normal).

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Persistent severe vomiting, leading to weight loss and dehydration. This condition occurs during pregnancy. It is thought to be related to the increase in hCG in the body.

Hyperesthesia

Unusual or pathological sensitivity of the skin or of a particular sense to stimulation.

Hyperglycaemia

Raised concentration of sugar in the blood.

Hyperglycemia

Raised concentration (level) of sugar in the blood.

Hyperkalemia

High blood calcium levels

Hyperlipidaemia

High levels of fat in the blood.

Hypernatremia

High blood sodium levels

Hyperreflexia

Higher reflexes than normal.

Hypersensitivity

An allergic reaction.

Hypersensitivity

An allergic reaction.

Hypersensitivity

An allergic reaction.

Hypertension

Raised blood pressure.

Hypertension

Raised blood pressure.

Hypertriglyceridaemia

High levels of triglycerides in the blood.

Hypo

Prefix meaning lower than usual.

Hypocalcemia

Low blood calcium levels

Hypochondriasis

Morbid concern about one's health especially when accompanied by delusions of physical disease.

Hypoesthesia

Impaired or decreased tactile sensibility.

Hypoglycemia

Low blood sugar levels

Hypogonadism

A condition resulting from or characterized by abnormally decreased gonadal function, with retardation of growth and sexual development.

Hypokalemia

A deficiency of potassium in the blood.

Hypokalemia

A deficiency of potassium (low potassium levels) in the blood.

Hyponatreamia

Deficiency of sodium in the blood.

Hyponatreamia

Deficiency of sodium in the blood (low sodium levels).

Hyporeflexia

Slower reflexes than normal

Hyporeflexia

Slower reflexes than normal

Hypotension

Low blood pressure

Hypoxaemia

Reduced amounts of oxygen in the blood, usually caused by pneumonia.

Hypoxemia

Reduced amounts of oxygen in the blood, usually caused by pneumonia.

Hysterectomy

The surgical removal of the uterus from the body. It can also include the removal of the cervix, ovaries, ovarian tubes and surrounding structures.

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I

IASC

Inter-Agency Standing Committee

IC50 / IC90

The concentration of a drug needed to inhibit viral replication by either 50% (IC50) or 90% (IC90). IC stands for 'inhibitory concentration'.

Ice breaker

An opening remark, action, activity etc., designed to ease tension or relieve formality.

Ice breaker

An opening remark, action, activity etc., designed to ease tension or relieve formality.

ICOH

The International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) is an international non-governmental professional society whose aims are to foster the scientific progress, knowledge and development of occupational health and safety in all its aspects. It was founded in 1906 in Milan as the Permanent Commission on Occupational Health. Today, ICOH is the world's leading international scientific society in the field of occupational health with a membership of 2,000 professionals from 93 countries.

Idiopathic

Refers to a disease or condition of unknown cause or origin.

IDP

Internally Displaced People

IDU

Intravenous drug user.

IEA

The International Ergonomics Association is the federation of ergonomics and human factors societies around the world. The main goals of the IEA are: to develop more effective communication and collaboration with federated societies; to advance the science and practice of ergonomics at an international level; and to enhance the contribution of the ergonomics discipline to global society.

Ileitis

Inflammation of the ileum (the last part of the small intestine).

ILO

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations which aims at social justice concerning labor issues. ILO is a tripartite organisation with government, workers’ and employers' representatives.

ILO convention

See Convention, ILO.

Immune

Resistant to a particular infection or toxin owing to the presence of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells.

Immune modulator

A substance that changes an aspect of the way that the immune system works.

Immune reconstitution

Improvement in the function of the immune system as a consequence of anti-HIV therapy.

Immune Response

The series of molecular events that are elicited when an antigen is encountered by the immune system. These include the expansion of B- and T- cells and the production of antibodies.

Immune restoration

Rebuilding of a damaged or compromised immune system (immune reconstitution).

Immune System

The body's defense system that protects against foreign invaders (e.g., microorganisms) and cancerous cells. Some immune defenses are nonspecific (e.g., phagocytosis). Defenses against specific antigens are of 2 types: cell-mediated (TH1) and humoral (antibody-based, or TH2). Organs of the immune system include the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils and bone marrow.

Immunity

Natural or acquired resistance to a specific disease. Natural immunity is a result of an individual's natural biologic makeup. Acquired immunity to a particular disease can result from the development of antibodies after an attack of an infectious disease, by a pregnant mother passing antibodies to the disease through the placenta to a fetus, or by vaccination.

Immunization

The process by which a person is protected against the adverse effects of infection by a disease-causing microorganism. Active immunization (vaccination) involves inoculating a person with an antigen and relying on their body to mount an immune response. Passive immunization involves giving a patient exogenous (manufactured or transferred from another individual) antibodies.

Immunization

Immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate the body's own immune system to protect the person against subsequent infection or disease.

Immunocompetent

The capacity for a normal immune response.

Immunofluorescence Assay

A test that uses a glowing dye to identify pathogenic organisms.

Immunogenic

The ability of a protein or set of proteins to elicit an immune response. Immunogenicity is the ability to stimulate an immune response.

Immunoglobulin (Ig)

Ig is one of a group of blood serum proteins that can act as an antibody.

Immunoglobulin (Ig)

Ig is one of a group of blood serum proteins that can act as an antibody.

Immunoglobulin (Ig)

Ig is one of a group of blood serum proteins that can act as an antibody.

Immunologic response

The effect of treatment on the immune system, particularly on the CD4 cell count.

Immunomodulator

An immunomodulator (or immune modulator) is an agent or process capable of modifying, building, or enhancing the function of the immune system. Immunomodulators include cytokines (e.g., IL-2, gamma interferon) and broad-acting agents. See also immunotherapy.

Immunosuppression

The down-regulation of the immune system by regulatory systems or external agents such as drugs or radiation.

Immunotherapy (or immune-based therapy)

A therapy that attempts to modify or enhance immune response, or reconstitute a damaged immune system. Examples of immune-based therapies for HIV disease include active immunization (vaccination), passive hyperimmune therapy, CD8 cell line expansion, and cytokine therapy.

In situ hybridization

A method used to detect and locate specific DNA or RNA sequences.

In utero

Latin term meaning in the womb.

In utero

Latin term meaning 'in the womb' (in the uterus).

In vitro

Latin term for experiments conducted in artificial environments, e.g. in test-tubes.

In vitro

Latin term for experiments conducted in artificial environments, e.g. in test-tubes.

In-depth interview

An in‐depth interview is a qualitative research method that involves intensive one‐on‐one discussion to explore a person’s thoughts, feelings, perspectives, behaviors, or understanding on a topic.

Incapacity for work

Inability to perform normal duties of work.

Incidence

The number of new cases of a disease or condition in a specific population over a given period of time. The incidence rate is determined by dividing the number of new cases by the total population.

Incident

An unwanted event which, in different circumstances, could have resulted in harm to people, damage to property or loss to a process. Also known as a near miss.

Incident investigation

The process of systematically gathering and analyzing information about an incident. This is done for the purposes of identifying causes and making recommendations to prevent the incident from happening again. [IAPA 2007]

Inclusion criteria

The conditions which a person must meet to join a clinical trial.

Incompetent cervix

A condition in which the uterine cervix is unable to retain a pregnancy due to it opening, effacing and dilating without the presence of the signs and symptoms of clinical contractions, or labor, or both in the second trimester.

Incomplete miscarriage (abortion)

A miscarriage in which not all of the uterine contents are expelled. The remaining tissue is usually removed with a dilation and curettage (D&C).

Inconclusive (indeterminate) result

A small percentage of HIV test results are inconclusive, i.e. the result is neither positive nor negative. This may be due to a number of factors that are not related to HIV infection, or it can be because of the person is in the early stages of infection when there are insufficient HIV antibodies present to give a positive result. If this happens the test must be repeated.

Incontinence

The inability to control one's natural discharges such as bladder or bowel movements.

Induction (of labor) (Induce)

A common procedure in obstetrics to initiate the onset of labor by artificial means. This usually takes place prior to its spontaneous onset at a viable gestational age, with the aim of achieving vaginal delivery in a pregnant woman.

Industrial hygiene

A science that deals with the anticipation, recognition, evaluation (measurement), and control of hazards in the physical work environment. These hazards may cause sickness, harm to employee health, discomfort, and inefficient performance on the job. Also known as occupational hygiene.

Infiltration

The process of passing through tissues or through a semi-permeable medium or filter.

Informal economic sector

The non-regulated labour market, which usually involves workers with informal (unwritten) arrangements with an employer. In many countries entitlement for social benefits (such as sick or maternity leave, paid retirement, or access to health care), and applicability of legal rules (such as limits on work hours, minimum wage) require a formal job contract.

Informed consent

Agreement to take part in a clinical trial, or to take a test, after a full written or verbal explanation of the trial including the risks and benefits of taking part, has been provided by the researchers.

Infrastructure for occupational safety and health

OSH Infrastructure refers to both physical and non-physical facilities that support the delivery of specialized OSH services, care, information and advice. Examples are the body of rules and regulations governing OSH; government ministries or departments that are committed and equipped for occupational safety and health; Labor Inspection; providers of basic and specialized OSH care and related financial provisions; educational systems for workers, management and professionals; organizations that create OSH knowledge and develop OSH tools; knowledge dissemination facilities such as OSH websites, helpdesks, journals and congresses; national OSH institutes and associations for OSH professionals; etc. See National system for occupational safety and health for an ILO vision.

Ingestion

The intake of a substance in the body through the mouth.

Inhalation

Breathing in a substance.

Inhibitory Concentration (IC)

A measure of the efficacy of a drug. The IC50 is the concentration of a drug that eliminates 50% of a population of microorganisms.

Injectable Hormonal Contraceptives (Injectables)

A contraceptive injection is a shot you receive once every 11 weeks to prevent pregnancy. The injection supplies a cocktail of hormones that suppress ovulation and changes your cervical mucus such that it will resist the penetration of sperm. It has a 99% effectiveness rate and is not affected by the use of antibiotics (most oral contraceptives are rendered ineffective by antibiotics, so this is a perfect method of contraception for those who are on long term antibiotics). In essence, the contraceptive injection fools your body into thinking it is pregnant, causing you to possibly take on some of the common symptoms associated with being pregnant.

Injectable Hormonal Contraceptives (Injectables)

A contraceptive injection is a shot you receive once every 11 weeks to prevent pregnancy. The injection supplies a cocktail of hormones that suppress ovulation and changes your cervical mucus such that it will resist the penetration of sperm. It has a 99% effectiveness rate and is not affected by the use of antibiotics (most oral contraceptives are rendered ineffective by antibiotics, so this is a perfect method of contraception for those who are on long term antibiotics). In essence, the contraceptive injection fools your body into thinking it is pregnant, causing you to possibly take on some of the common symptoms associated with being pregnant.

Injection Drug User (IDU)

A person who uses a drug (e.g., heroin) that is administered with a needle and syringe. The term intravenous drug user (IVDU) is also sometimes used. IDU is more general, and refers to injection methods other than intravenous administration.

Injection Drug User (IDU)

A person who uses a drug (e.g., heroin) that is administered with a needle and syringe. The term intravenous drug user (IVDU) is also sometimes used. IDU is more general, and refers to injection methods other than intravenous administration.

Injection Drug User (IDU)

A person who uses a drug (e.g., heroin) that is administered with a needle and syringe. The term intravenous drug user (IVDU) is also sometimes used. IDU is more general, and refers to injection methods other than intravenous administration.

Innate Immunity

The barriers that keep harmful materials from entering the body and form the first line of defense in the immune response. Some of these barriers are the skin, stomach acid, mucous (traps microorganisms and small particles), the cough reflex, and enzymes in tears and skin oils. If an antigen gets past the external barriers, it is attacked and destroyed by other parts of the immune system. Innate immunity also includes those things that make humans resistant to many of the diseases of animals.

Inoculation

The introduction of a pathogen or antigen into a living organism to stimulate the production of antibodies, the introduction of a vaccine or serum into a living organism to confer immunity.

Inoculum

Inoculation is the placement of something that will grow or reproduce, and is most commonly used in respect of the introduction of a serum, vaccine, or antigenic substance into the body of a human or animal, especially to produce or boost immunity to a specific disease. The microorganism used in an inoculation is called the inoculant or inoculum.

Insomnia

Sleeplessness.

Insulin

A hormone produced by the pancreas that tends to lower blood sugar levels.

Insulin

A hormone produced by the pancreas that tends to lower blood sugar levels.

Integrase

A viral enzyme that enables the integration of viral genetic material into a host cell's DNA. An integrase inhibitor is an antiviral drug that blocks viral replication by interfering with the action of the integrase enzyme.

Integration

The physical insertion of DNA into the host cell genome. The process is used by retroviruses when a specific enzyme catalyses the process or can occur at random sites with other DNA (e.g. transposons). The newly made HIV DNA moves to the cell's nucleus, where it is spliced into the host's DNA with the help of HIV integrase. Once incorporated into the cell's genes, HIV DNA is called a ""provirus"" and takes over the host cell's biological mechanisms to produce more virus.

Intent-to-Treat

A method of analysis in clinical trials that groups each participant according to the arm to which they were initially assigned (e.g., experimental drug, standard therapy, placebo), regardless of whether they remain in that arm for the duration of the study.

Interactive learning

A method of acquiring information through hands on, active means. The student is engaged both intellectually and emotionally in interactive learning. Feedback, reflection and dialogue are integral components of interactive learning.

Interactive learning

A method of acquiring information through hands on, active means. The student is engaged both intellectually and emotionally in interactive learning. Feedback, reflection and dialogue are integral components of interactive learning.

Interferon

A protein in a cell produced to prevent replication of a virus in the cell.

Interleukin (IL)

A cytokine (chemical messenger) secreted by immune system cells that regulates a range of immune system functions.

Intermittent

Occurring sporadically or in phases.

Interstitial

Situated within but not restricted to or characteristic of a particular organ or tissue (used especially of fibrous tissue). May also refer to the spaces between cells.

Intimacy

A closeness with another person, usually a close, familiar, affectionate/loving relationship with another person.

Intimacy

A closeness with another person, usually a close, familiar, affectionate/loving relationship with another person.

Intracranial

Situated or occurring within the cranium (skull).

Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Abnormal cell growth that suggests possible malignancy. Common sites are the anus (anal intraepithelial neoplasia) and the uterine cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia).

Intramuscular

Injected into a muscle.

Intrapartum

During the birth of a baby.

Intrapartum

During the birth of a baby.

Intrapartum

During the birth of a baby.

Intrapartum

During ('intra') the birth of a baby ('partum').

Intrathecal

Injected into the fluid (theca) around the spinal cord.

Intrathecal

Injected into the fluid (theca) around the spinal cord.

Intrathecal

Injected into the fluid (theca) around the spinal cord.

Intrauterine device

A contraceptive device fitted inside the uterus that physically prevents the implantation of fertilized ova.

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)

A condition in which a fetus is growing at a slower rate than normal.

Intrauterine Methods (IUDs)

A device that is inserted in the uterus and left there to prevent pregnancy.

Intrauterine Methods (IUDs)

A device that is inserted in the uterus and left there to prevent pregnancy.

Intravenous

Injected into a vein.

Intravenous

Injected into a vein.

Intravenous

Injected into a vein.

Intravenous

Administering fluid or medication into a vein or veins.

Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG)

Broad-spectrum concentrated antibodies administered intravenously to treat conditions in which the body does not produce enough of its own antibodies. Recombinant and pooled immunoglobulins from blood donors are used to prevent bacterial infections, especially in children with HIV disease.

Intravitreal

Within the eye.

Intrinsic

Originating or due to causes or factors within a body, organ, or part of the body.

Invasive

In medical terms, going inside the body.

Inverted nipples

A condition where the nipple, instead of pointing outward, is retracted into the breast. In some cases, the nipple will temporarily protrude if stimulated, but in other cases, the inversion remains regardless of stimulus.

Involution

Atrophy, shrinkage or loss of normal shape and structure.

Involution

The shrinkage or return to normal size of an organ when inactive, e.g. of the uterus after childbirth.

IOHA

The International Occupational Hygiene Association was established to improve, promote and develop occupational hygiene worldwide through its member organizations, and to improve and maintain a safe and healthy working environment for all. From its creation in 1987, IOHA has grown to 26 member organizations, representing over 20,000 occupational hygienists worldwide.

IPT

Isoniazid Preventive Therapy

IRIS

Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome.

Iron deficiency anemia

A decrease in the number of red blood cells, usually due to a shortage of iron. The condition, detected through a blood test, causes symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, breathlessness, or fainting spells. Eating a diet rich in iron and taking an iron supplement during the second half of pregnancy is crucial to keep up with the increased need for iron and red blood cells.

Irritant

A substance which, in sufficient quantities, can inflame or irritate the eyes, other mucosa, skin or respiratory system (lungs, etc.). Symptoms include pain and reddening.

Islets of Langerhans (or islet cells)

Cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.

Isolate

A specific individual microbe and its genetically identical progeny.

Isosporiasis

An illness caused by the parasite Isospora belli.

Isotypes

Different classes of protein molecules that share the same structure and size. Antibodies exist in five different isotypes called IgG, IgM, IgD, IgE, and IgA.

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J

Jaundice

A yellowish pigmentation of the skin, tissues, and certain body fluids caused by the deposition of bile pigments that follows interference with normal production and discharge of bile (as in certain liver diseases) or excessive breakdown of red blood cells.

Jaundice

A yellowish pigmentation of the skin, tissues, and certain body fluids caused by the deposition of bile pigments. It occurs if there has been dysfunction of the normal production and discharge of bile (as in certain liver diseases) or excessive breakdown of red blood cells.

Job security

Security at work against unlawful dismissal, as well as against unsatisfactory work conditions and an unsatisfactory work environment. Sometimes also security against falling income due to sickness or unemployment are included.

Joint health and safety committee

In a number of countries there are so called ‘joint health and safety committees’ in workplaces with more than a defined number of workers. Members of the committee can be partly workers who do not exercise managerial functions, e.g. selected by the workers or, where there is one, the trade union, partly persons who exercise managerial functions or are OSH experts, appointed by management. The responsibilities and powers of joint committees can include: obtaining information on workplace hazards, identifying workplace hazards, and recommending how to make the workplace safer and healthier.

Justice

Ethical research principle that means that the benefits and risks or burdens of your research activities are equally distributed between everyone involved in the study.

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K

Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS)

An abnormal or cancerous proliferation of cells and blood and/or lymph vessels causing tumors on the skin, mucous membranes and/or internal organs. KS typically appears as pink or purple flat or raised lesions. KS is caused by the human herpes virus type 8 (HHV8), also called Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpes Virus (KSHV).

Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS)

An abnormal or cancerous proliferation of cells and blood and/or lymph vessels causing tumors on the skin, mucous membranes and/or internal organs. KS typically appears as pink or purple flat or raised lesions. KS is caused by the human herpes virus type 8 (HHV8), also called Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpes Virus (KSHV).

Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS)

An abnormal or cancerous proliferation of cells and blood and/or lymph vessels causing tumors on the skin, mucous membranes and/or internal organs. KS typically appears as pink or purple flat or raised lesions. KS is caused by the human herpes virus type 8 (HHV8), also called Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpes Virus (KSHV).

Karnofsky Score

A subjective score (0-100) given by a doctor to describe a patient's ability to perform everyday tasks (eating, dressing, etc.)

Key concepts or key constructs

Key concepts or key constructs are the words we use to refer to the phenomena in the real world that we want to study: the where, the what, and the who. The words concepts and constructs are often used interchangeably.

Kick chart

A form or graph used by a pregnant woman in the later stages to record the activity of her fetus. If too few kicks are felt within a specified time (usually 12 hours), this could indicate a problem with the baby.

Kilobase

Unit of RNA or DNA equal to 1000 nucleotide bases.

Kinase

An enzyme that adds phosphates to amino acids, a crucial step in intracellular signaling and many other processes.

Klebsiella

A type of bacteria that can cause respiratory disease (e.g., sinusitis, pneumonia), especially in immunocompromised individuals.

Knowledge infrastructure for occupational safety and health

All physical and non-physical facilities that support the creation of, access to and dissemination of reliable information (knowledge) on occupational safety and health to experts, workers and companies, such as: the creation of knowledge by research; publication of results in journals, websites, reports and books; development of knowledge products such as reviews, guidelines, protocols, instruments, criteria documents and norms; storage in and access to (virtual, online) libraries or other repositories; education and training; knowledge transfer (dissemination) by congresses and meetings, by quality websites, and in print and by answering questions (e.g. helpdesks, online Q&A facilities). The ultimate goal is to provide good accessible and understandable, relevant, evidence-based information and tools for workers and management/employers, so that they have access when and where they need it in order to use this information to make informed decisions about health and safety at work.

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L

Lab on a Chip

Term describing microdevices that allow rapid, microanalytical analysis of DNA or protein in a single, fully integrated system. Typically, these devices are miniature surfaces, made of silicon, glass or plastic, which carry the necessary microdevices (pumps, valves, microfluidic controllers, and detectors) that allow sample separation and analysis. These devices are used in drug discovery, genetic testing and separation science.

Labia

The labia are anatomical structures that are part of the female genitalia; they are the major externally visible portions of the vulva. In humans, there are two pairs of labia: the outer labia, or labia majora are larger and fattier, while the labia minora are folds of skin often concealed within the outer labia. The labia surround and protect the clitoris and the openings of the vagina and urethra.

Labia

The labia are anatomical structures that are part of the female genitalia; they are the major externally visible portions of the vulva. In humans, there are two pairs of labia: the outer labia, or labia majora are larger and fattier, while the labia minora are folds of skin often concealed within the outer labia. The labia surround and protect the clitoris and the openings of the vagina and urethra.

Labia

The inner and outer folds of the vulva, located at either side of the vagina.

Labor

Investing the necessary energy and effort needed to keep the relationship growing and benefiting both people.

Labor

Investing the necessary energy and effort needed to keep the relationship growing and benefiting both people.

Labor

The physical processes at the end of a normal pregnancy, including the opening of the cervix and contractions of the uterus that lead to the birth of the baby.

Labor inspectorate

A government authority with the task of advising and giving directions on issues concerning the protection of workers and the work environment, as well as checking that the protection is sufficient.

Laceration

In pregnancy, a laceration refers to a tear in the perineal tissue that occurs during childbirth.

Lactate

Another name for lactic acid.

Lactation

The secretion of milk by the mammary glands of the breasts.

Lactic acidosis

High blood levels of lactic acid, a substance involved in metabolism. Lactic acidosis is a rare side-effect of nucleoside analogues.

Langerhans Cell

A type of dendritic cell in the skin and mucous membranes that transports antigens to the lymph nodes.

Lanugo

The fine temporary hair that covers a fetus from about 26 weeks and is sometimes still present at birth.

Large for gestational age

A measurement that indications high pregnancy growth rate of a fetus. LGA is often defined as a weight, length, or head circumference that lies above the 90th percentile for that gestational age.

Last menstrual period (LMP)

The first day of last menstrual period (LMP): the date that is used to calculate the 40 weeks of pregnancy and a woman's due date.

Latching on

The movement in which the baby takes the nipple and areola properly into the mouth to begin breastfeeding.

Latent labor

The first stage of labor is divided into two phases: the latent phase and the active phase. In the latent phase, contractions become progressively more coordinated and the cervix dilates to 4 cm.

Laxative

An agent that acts to promote evacuation of the bowel.

Leishmaniasis

An infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania that infects and lives inside human macrophages. The parasite is transmitted by sandflies. The infection is characterized by lesions on exposed parts of the body, and may be fatal if left untreated.

Lentivirus

A subfamily of retroviruses that includes HIV. Lentiviruses are associated with chronic, slow-developing diseases.

Lesion

Any abnormal change in body tissue caused by disease or injury. Often refers to Kaposi's sarcoma, which can cause skin lesions.

Letdown reflex

The breasts' involuntarily release of milk for the nursing baby.

Lethargy

Abnormal drowsiness and/or the quality or state of being lazy, sluggish, or indifferent.

Leucorrhea

A thick, milky, mild-smelling vaginal discharge that is normal during pregnancy. It usually increases as pregnancy progresses and can get heavy at times.

Leukocytes

White blood cells.

Leukopenia

Fewer than normal white cells in the blood, usually due to bone marrow damage.

Leukoplakia

A mouth infection caused by Epstein-Barr virus that can occur relatively early in HIV disease. Often called hairy leukoplakia due to its appearance as white patches on the sides of the tongue.

LGBTI

Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Rransgender or Intersex

Libido

Another word for sexual drive.

Lie

The direction the fetus is lying in the uterus, such as transverse, longitudinal or oblique.

Life skills

Behaviors used appropriately and responsibly in the management of personal affairs. They are a set of human skills acquired via teaching or direct experience that are used to handle problems and questions commonly encountered in daily human life.

Life skills

Behaviors used appropriately and responsibly in the management of personal affairs. They are a set of human skills acquired via teaching or direct experience that are used to handle problems and questions commonly encountered in daily human life.

Ligand

Any small molecule that binds to a protein or receptor; the cognate partner of many cellular proteins, enzymes, and receptors.

Lightening

When the fetus descends into the pelvic cavity in preparation for delivery. In first pregnancies, the baby often drops two to four weeks before delivery; in subsequent pregnancies, dropping often does not occur until labor.

LIP

Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia

Lipid

A general term for fats.

Lipoatrophy

Loss of body fat.

Lipodystrophy

A disruption to the way the body produces, uses and distributes fat.

Lipodystrophy

A disruption to the way the body produces, uses and distributes fat.

Lipodystrophy

A disruption to the way the body produces, uses and distributes fat.

Liposome (or lipid vesicle)

A spherical fat particle suspended in a liquid. Liposomes are used to carry drugs or other substances to cells or tissues, allowing them to remain active for longer in the body and to have a less detrimental effect on the liver than conventional formulations of drugs.

Live Attenuated Virus Vaccine (or Weakened Virus Vaccine)

A form of vaccine given to people in order to infect them with a virus which is closely related to the virus against which protection must be given and invoke an immune response.

Liver

An organ involved in digestion of food and excretion of waste products from the body.

Liver function tests (LFTs)

Tests evaluating the functioning of the liver.

Loading Dose

A larger than normal dose administered as the first in a series of doses; the others of which are smaller, but equal to each other. The loading dose is administered in order to achieve a therapeutic amount in the body more rapidly than would occur only by accumulation of the repeated smaller doses.

Loading Dose

A larger than normal dose of a medicine (e.g. an antibiotic) administered as the first in a series of doses; the others of which are smaller, but equal to each other. The loading dose is administered in order to achieve a therapeutic amount in the body more rapidly than would occur only by accumulation of the repeated smaller doses.

Lochia

Vaginal discharge after childbirth. It starts like a heavy period and tapers off each day. It can last for up to six weeks postpartum.

Log

A log is a mathematical term that is difficult to explain. Scientists find that translating viral load counts into logs is an easier way to compare them, especially since the counts can sometimes be very large numbers. A log is the number of times ten must be multiplied with itself to equal a certain number, in this case, the viral load count. For example, a viral load count of 100,000 is ""log 5"" because it is equal to 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10. Logs are used to measure changes in viral load. For example, a reduction in viral load from 100,000 to 1,000 is a two log (or 99 percent) reduction.

Long Terminal Repeat (LTR)

A segment of the HIV gene that must be activated to ""turn on"" viral replication. LTRs are sequences that are several hundred bases long; they are directly repeated at the ends of the DNA of many retroviral genomes.

Long-term nonprogressor (LTNP)

An individual who has been infected with HIV for several years (7-10 or more) but does not exhibit immune system decline or have opportunistic diseases. About 10% of persons with HIV disease seem to be LTNP. LTNP typically have a strong cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response, minimal lymph node damage and a relatively low viral load. LTNPs may have unusually strong immune responses, may be infected with a weakened strain of HIV, or may have protective genetic factors.

Longitudinal

Refers to a study that follows participants over an extended period of time.

Longitudinal

The fetus is lying with its spine parallel to the mother's spine.

Love

A feeling of strong or constant affection for a person.

Love

A feeling of strong or constant affection for a person.

Low birth weight baby

A birth weight of a liveborn infant of less than 2,500g regardless of gestational age.

LTR inhibitor

A substance that interferes with the long terminal repeat of the HIV gene, thus inhibiting viral replication.

Lumbar puncture

A small hole made in the spinal column to take out spinal fluid for tests or to inject drugs. Also called a spinal tap. It involves the insertion of a needle through the tissue between the vertebrae to access the spinal canal.

Lust

A strong desire for something, in the case of a sexual situation: a strong feeling of sexual desire.

Lust

A strong desire for something, in the case of a sexual situation: a strong feeling of sexual desire.

Lymph node (or lymph gland)

A small, bean-sized organ located throughout the body, with concentrations in the neck, groin and armpits. Lymph nodes filter out antigens and are the site of antigen presentation and immune activation. The lymph nodes are a reservoir site for HIV.

Lymphadenopathy

Inflammation (swelling) of lymph nodes caused by numerous conditions, including flu, mononucleosis, lymphoma, and primary HIV infection.

Lymphadenopathy

Inflammation (swelling) of lymph nodes caused by numerous conditions, including flu, mononucleosis, lymphoma, and primary HIV infection.

Lymphadenopathy

Inflammation (swelling) of lymph nodes caused by numerous conditions, including flu, mononucleosis, lymphoma, and primary HIV infection.

Lymphatic system (or adjective lymphoid)

A network of capillary-like vessels, ducts, nodes and organs that help maintain the fluid environment of the body and coordinate immune responses. Two major lymphatic vessels return fluid to the vascular system. The lymphoid organs include the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils and adenoids.

Lymphocyte

A type of white blood cell.

Lymphocyte

A type of white blood cell.

Lymphocyte

A type of white blood cell.

Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (lip)

A rare type of pneumonia that particularly affects children with HIV.

Lymphoid tissue

Tissue involved in the formation of lymph fluid, lymphocytes and antibodies.

Lymphoma

Any neoplastic disorder of the lymphoid tissue.

Lysis

The gradual decline of a disease process (as fever) and/or the process of disintegration or dissolution (as of cells).

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M

Macrophage

A white blood cell that roams the body tissues engulfing foreign organisms.

Macrophage

A white blood cell that roams the body tissues engulfing foreign organisms.

Macrophage

A white blood cell that roams the body tissues engulfing foreign organisms.

Macrosomia

The excessive intrauterine growth of a fetus beyond a specific threshold regardless of gestational age. This condition usually is defined as a birth weight greater than 4000 or 4500g.

Macule

A patch of skin that is altered in color but usually not elevated and that is a characteristic feature of various diseases (as smallpox).

Maculopapular

Combining the characteristics of macules and papules.

Magnesium sulphate (sulfate)

Magnesium sulfate is most commonly used for the treatment of preeclampsia during pregnancy.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Technique similar to CAT scanning.

MAI / MAC (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/Mycobacterium avium complex)

Micro-organisms related to TB which can cause disease in people with advanced HIV.

Maintenance therapy (or secondary prophylaxis)

Preventive therapy that follows successful initial treatment of an illness.

Malabsorption

Failure of the gut to absorb food, resulting in weight loss, diarrhoea and decreased effectiveness of drugs taken orally.

Malaise

A general feeling of illness.

Male reproductive organs

The human male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that form a part of the human reproductive process. In this type of reproductive system, these sex organs are located outside the body, around the pelvic region. The main male sex organs are the penis and the testicles which produce semen and sperm, which, as part of sexual intercourse, fertilize an ovum in the female's body; the fertilized ovum (zygote) develops into a fetus, which is later born as a child.

Male reproductive organs

The human male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that form a part of the human reproductive process. In this type of reproductive system, these sex organs are located outside the body, around the pelvic region. The main male sex organs are the penis and the testicles which produce semen and sperm, which, as part of sexual intercourse, fertilize an ovum in the female's body; the fertilized ovum (zygote) develops into a fetus, which is later born as a child.

Malignant

Tumours which may grow rapidly, infiltrate surrounding tissues and spread around the body.

Malposition

Abnormal positions of the vertex of the fetal head relative to the maternal pelvis, prior to or during labor. The most common malposition is Left occipito-posterior.

Malpresentation

Any presentation other than a vertex presentation prior to or when labor commences. Malpresentations include: breech, footling, shoulder, and transverse.

Mammary glands

The glands of the breast that produce breast milk.

Mane

Latin term meaning day.

Marasmus

A condition of chronic undernourishment occurring especially in children and usually caused by a diet deficient in calories and proteins.

Marker

A lab result or symptom observation used to measure a treatment's effectiveness or an individual's immune system status. Also refers to a unique identifier on a cell's surface.

Mastitis

Inflammation of the mammary gland in the breast, typically due to bacterial infection via a damaged nipple.

Masturbation

The sexual stimulation of one's own genitals, usually to the point of an orgasm. To masturbate is to stimulate yourself sexually. In other words, to have sex by yourself, with yourself.

Masturbation

The sexual stimulation of one's own genitals, usually to the point of an orgasm. To masturbate is to stimulate yourself sexually. In other words, to have sex by yourself, with yourself.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

A form that contains detailed information about the possible health and safety hazards of a product and how to safely store, use and handle the product. In most countries, suppliers are required to provide MSDSs for all hazardous materials as a condition of sale.

Maturity

The state or quality of being fully grown or developed.

Maturity

The state or quality of being fully grown or developed.

MDR-TB

Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (TB). TB that is resistant at least to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP).

Mean

A statistical measurement of the central tendency or average of a set of values.

Mean

A statistical measurement of the central tendency or average of a set of values.

Meconium

The earliest stool of a newborn baby. It is dark greenish and composed of bile, mucus, and epithelial cells.

Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)

A medical condition causing respiratory distress affecting newborn infants. It occurs when meconium or amniotic fluid is present in their lungs during or before delivery.

Median

The number within a series that is preceded and followed by an equal number of values.

Median

The number within a series that is preceded and followed by an equal number of values.

Medical surveillance program

See Occupational health surveillance (systems).

Megestrol acetate (or megace)

A synthetic progesterone used to stimulate appetite and promote weight gain in people with HIV-related wasting syndrome. Side effects may include menstrual changes in women, feminizing side effects in men, and swelling of the hands and feet.

Membranes

The amnion and chorion, which make up the amniotic sac. The amniotic sac contains the amniotic fluid which surrounds and protects the fetus in the uterus.

Memory

The phenomenon whereby the immune system responds faster and more powerfully to an antigen on exposures subsequent to the primary exposure; a heightened secondary immune response.

Memory cell

A cell that remains after the body mounts an immune response to an antigen and is capable of an immediate response to the reappearance of the same antigen. Memory cells include certain subsets of T-cells (CD4 and CD8) and some B-cells.

Memory cell

A cell that remains after the body mounts an immune response to an antigen and is capable of an immediate response to the reappearance of the same antigen. Memory cells include certain subsets of T-cells (CD4 and CD8) and some B-cells.

Memory cell

A cell that remains after the body mounts an immune response to an antigen and is capable of an immediate response to the reappearance of the same antigen. Memory cells include certain subsets of T-cells (CD4 and CD8) and some B-cells.

Meningitis

Inflammation of the outer lining of the brain.

Menstrual Cycle

The recurring monthly series of physiological changes in women and other female primates in which an egg is produced in the process known as ovulation, and the uterine lining thickens to allow for implantation if fertilization occurs. If the egg is not fertilized, the lining of the uterus breaks down and is discharged during menstruation.

Menstrual Cycle

The recurring monthly series of physiological changes in women and other female primates in which an egg is produced in the process known as ovulation, and the uterine lining thickens to allow for implantation if fertilization occurs. If the egg is not fertilized, the lining of the uterus breaks down and is discharged during menstruation.

Menstruation

A natural, normal process the female body goes through. It happens when a sperm does not fertilize the egg and the lining of the uterus in women and pubescent girls is shed, typically taking place every 28 days. The lining is made up of tissue and blood, and is needed to nourish a fertilized egg. If there is no fertilized egg, the lining is expelled from the uterus. Menstruation may last between two and seven days. Teen girls typically experience their first period around the age of 12, however it may be years before a girl's cycle becomes regular. Menstruation is also called a period because it happens once a month. Having a period means a girl can now reproduce. It is normal for each girl to have an individual menstrual cycle and to begin menstruation at a different age from her classmates. Once a girl begins menstruating she can become pregnant.

Menstruation

A natural, normal process the female body goes through. It happens when a sperm does not fertilize the egg and the lining of the uterus in women and pubescent girls is shed, typically taking place every 28 days. The lining is made up of tissue and blood, and is needed to nourish a fertilized egg. If there is no fertilized egg, the lining is expelled from the uterus. Menstruation may last between two and seven days. Teen girls typically experience their first period around the age of 12, however it may be years before a girl's cycle becomes regular. Menstruation is also called a period because it happens once a month. Having a period means a girl can now reproduce. It is normal for each girl to have an individual menstrual cycle and to begin menstruation at a different age from her classmates. Once a girl begins menstruating she can become pregnant.

Menstruation

The periodic discharge of blood and mucosal tissue from the uterus, occurring approximately monthly from puberty to menopause in non-pregnant women.

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

Pieces of ribonucleic acid that carry genetic information from DNA to ribosomes, leading to the synthesis of new proteins.

Meta-analysis

Where data from several clinical trials of the same thing, such as the use of a specific drug to treat a particular infection, are combined together to produce an overall result.

Metabolism

The mechanisms which sustain life, turning sugar and fat into energy.

Metabolite

Any chemical resulting from the process of metabolism.

MHPSS

Mental Health and PsychoSocial Support

Microbe

A tiny living organism (e.g., bacterium, protozoan, fungus), especially those which cause disease.

Microbicides

A chemical that kills the germs (""microbes"") that cause some sexually transmitted infections. Microbicides can be formulated as gels or jellies, cream, suppositories, or film; they are put into the vagina some time before sexual intercourse. Microbicides are being studied that may kill HIV and bacterial sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. Some microbicides also kill sperm (are ""spermicidal"") and therefore can also be used as contraceptives.

Microsporidiosis

Infection by a protozoal pathogen that causes diarrhea and cramps; this is sometimes incorrectly diagnosed as cryptosporidiosis.

Mid-stream specimen urine, MSU, MSSU

Mid-stream specimen urine (MSSU). The aim is to obtain a sample (specimen) of urine from the middle of the bladder rather than the initial urine that is produced which may be contaminated with skin cells.

Midwife

A practitioner specially qualified to care for childbearing women and their babies. A midwife is a person who has successfully completed a midwifery education programme that is recognized in the country where it is located and that is based on the ICM Essential Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice and the framework of the ICM Global Standards for Midwifery Education; who has acquired the requisite qualifications to be registered and/or legally licensed to practice midwifery and use the title 'midwife'; and who demonstrates competency in the practice of midwifery.

Miscarriage

The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus; most common in the first trimester. Also known as spontaneous abortion.

Misoprostol

A drug used to induce labor or abortions, and treat postpartum bleeding due to insufficient contraction of the uterus. For abortions, it is used with mifepristone or methotrexate. It is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 (PGE1).

Mitochondria

A rod-shaped or oval organelle in the cytoplasm of a cell that produces most of the cell's energy.

Mitochondrial toxicity

Mitochondria are structures in human cells responsible for energy production. When damaged by anti- HIV drugs, this can cause a wide range of side-effects, including possibly fat loss.

Mitogen

A substance that stimulates the division of cells and can induce cancerous growth.

Mitosis

The nuclear division that results in the replication of the genetic material and its redistribution into each of the daughter cells during cell division.

MOHFW

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

Moieties

One of the portions into which something is divided.

Molding

The temporary reshaping of a baby's head to facilitate its passage through the birth canal. The spaces between the bones allow the baby's head to change shape. Depending on the amount and length of pressure, the skull bones may even overlap.

Monitoring of exposure

The systematic measurement of exposure to work related health hazards from, for instance, chemical substances, noise, vibration or radiation. There are two types of measurements that can be taken: - biological monitoring based on assessments in biological media of the worker such as in blood, urine, faeces, exhaled air, nails or hair; the assessments are e.g. of a chemical or its metabolite to determine whether a person has been or is being exposed to that chemical, looking for traces of the chemical or biological indicators of chemical exposure. - environmental monitoring based on assessments in the working environment e.g. in the workplace air, at objects at the workplace or in fluids present at the workplace. See also Biological monitoring.

Monoclonal antibodies

Artificial antibodies derived (often by genetic engineering) from a single cell or its clones and created in a laboratory to target a specific disease (epitope). Monoclonal antibodies are used extensively as therapeutic and diagnostic agents.

Monocyte

A white blood cell that roams the body tissues engulfing foreign organisms.

Monomer

A single unit of any biological molecule or macromolecule, such as an amino acid, nucleic acid, polypeptide domain, or protein.

Monotherapy

Taking a drug on its own, as opposed to in combination with other drugs.

Morbidity

Sickness; the state of being affected by disease.

Morning after pill

A pill that a woman takes after having sex so that she will not become pregnant. This oral drug usually contains high doses of estrogen taken up to usually three days after unprotected sexual intercourse that interferes with pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation or by blocking implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus of the woman.

Morning after pill

A pill that a woman takes after having sex so that she will not become pregnant. This oral drug usually contains high doses of estrogen taken up to usually three days after unprotected sexual intercourse that interferes with pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation or by blocking implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus of the woman.

Morning sickness

see Hyperemesis gravidarum

Morphine

The principal and most active narcotic alkaloid of opium, having powerful analgesic action and some central stimulant action

Mortality rate

A measure of the incidence of death; rate is calculated as the number of deaths over a period of time divided by the number of individuals times the period of follow-up.

Mortality rate

A measure of the incidence of death; rate is calculated as the number of deaths over a period of time divided by the number of individuals times the period of follow-up.

Mortality rate

A measure of the incidence of death; rate is calculated as the number of deaths over a period of time divided by the number of individuals times the period of follow-up.

Mortality rate

A measure of the incidence of death; rate is calculated as the number of deaths over a period of time divided by the number of individuals multiplied by the period of follow-up.

Mosaic

A combination of different genetic variants occurring in a single individual.

Motoneuron

Neuron with a motor function (producing or subserving motion)

MSM

Men who have sex with men.

MSM

Men who have sex with men.

MSM

Men who have sex with men.

MST

Morphine slow release tablets

MSW

Male Sex Worker

MTB

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

MTCT

Mother to child transmission

Mucocutaneous

Made up of or involving both typical skin and mucous membrane.

Mucosal immunity

Immunity that involves IgA antibodies located in the mucous membranes at the openings of the body (e.g., the genital tract).

Mucus plug

A jellylike plug of mucus that seals off the cervix and is expelled normally before delivery through the vagina. It protects the uterus and the fetus by preventing bacteria from entering the uterus.

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)

A strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is resistant to a number of the standard anti-TB drugs. Treatment requires aggressive therapy with up to 7 different drugs taken concurrently.

Multigravida

A women who has been pregnant 1 or more times before.

Multipara

A woman who has had two or more pregnancies resulting in potentially viable offspring. The term para refers to births. A para III has had three babies; a para VI or more is also known as a grand 'multipara'.

Multiple birth

A women giving birth to more than one baby in the same pregnancy.

Multiple pregnancy

A woman carrying more than one fetus at the same time (twins, triplets).

Multivariate analysis

A statistical analysis technique in which multiple variables are analyzed separately to determine the contribution made by each variable to an observed result.

Musculoskeletal disorders

Disorders of the muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, bones and nerves. Most work-related MSDs develop over time and are caused or exacerbated by the work itself and/or by the working environment, especially by using force, repetition of movements, awkward posture, or vibration. MSDs affect the back, neck, shoulders, upper and lower limbs. Health problems range from discomfort, minor aches and pains to more serious medical conditions requiring time off work and medical treatment. In more chronic cases the disorders could result in permanent disability and loss of employment.

Mutagenesis

The occurrence or induction of mutation.

Mutagenic

Inducing or capable of inducing genetic mutation.

Mutant

In biology and especially genetics, a mutant is an individual, organism, or new genetic character, arising or resulting from an instance of mutation.

Mutation

Any alteration to DNA that can potentially result in a change in the function of one or more genes and that is perpetuated in subsequent cell divisions. Mutations can be a change in a single base of DNA (point mutation) or a loss of base pairs (deletion) affecting a single gene, or a movement of chromosomal regions (translocation) affecting many genes. Mutations can be induced by radiation, chemical treatment, foreign pathogens (e.g. viruses), or due to errors that occur during replication of the genome each time a cell divides. Mutations can affect gene regulation and expression or can cause a change in the protein itself that results in a non-functional protein or one with abnormal activity. Some changes in DNA occur naturally and have no harmful effects.

Myalgia

Muscle pain.

Mycobacteria

A category of gram-positive, acid-fast bacteria that contains species causing diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy and Mycobacterium avium complex.

Mycosis

Any fungal disease.

Myelopathy

A general term denoting functional disturbances or pathological changes in the spinal cord.

Myelotoxic

Damaging to the bone marrow.

Myopathy

An inflammation or disease of the muscles that may cause pain or weakness.

Myositis

Inflammation of a voluntary muscle.

Myristoylation

An irreversible, post-translational protein modification found in animals, plants, fungi and viruses. In this protein modification, a myristoyl group (derived from myristic acid) is covalently attached via an amide bond to the alpha-amino group of an N-terminal glycine residue of a nascent polypeptide. The modification is catalyzed by the enzyme N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), and occurs most commonly on glycine residues exposed during co-translational N-terminal methionine removal. Myristoylation also occurs post-translationally, for example, when previously internal glycine residues become exposed by caspase cleavage during apoptosis.

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N

NAC

National AIDS Committee

NAC (or n-acetylcysteine)

A substance which is converted within the body to cysteine, an amino acid that is a component of glutathione, a major cellular antioxidant. NAC may block the action of tumor necrosis factor.

NAD

No abnormality detected (normal).

Nadir

Lowest out of a series of measurements.

Naegele's rule

Naegele's rule is a standard way of calculating the due date for a pregnancy. The rule estimates the expected date of delivery (EDD) by adding one year, subtracting three months, and adding seven days to the first day of a woman's last menstrual period (LMP). The result is approximately 280 days (40 weeks) from the start of the last menstrual period. Another method is by adding 9 months and 7 days to the first day of the last menstrual period.

Naïve

Inexperienced. The term is used to describe an individual who has never taken a certain drug or class of drugs (e.g., AZT-naive, antiretroviral-naive), or to refer to an undifferentiated immune system cell.

Naive T cell

A subset of CD4 and CD8 cells that proliferate rapidly when exposed to new antigens. Naive cells are ""uncommitted"" and respond to general antigenic stimulation (i.e., not only to a specific antigen). A naive T-cell is not yet ""programmed"" to stimulate either a cell-mediated (TH1) or a humoral (TH2) response.

Naive T cell

A subset of CD4 and CD8 cells that proliferate rapidly when exposed to new antigens. Naive cells are ""uncommitted"" and respond to general antigenic stimulation (i.e., not only to a specific antigen). A naive T-cell is not yet ""programmed"" to stimulate either a cell-mediated (TH1) or a humoral (TH2) response.

Naive T cell

A subset of CD4 and CD8 cells that proliferate rapidly when exposed to new antigens. Naive cells are ""uncommitted"" and respond to general antigenic stimulation (i.e., not only to a specific antigen). A naive T-cell is not yet ""programmed"" to stimulate either a cell-mediated (TH1) or a humoral (TH2) response.

Named patient basis prescribing

A means of access to an unlicensed drug, in which a doctor requests supplies from its manufacturer for a specific individual.

NASBA (Nucleic Acid Sequence-based Amplification)

A transcription-based amplification method which amplifies RNA from either an RNA or DNA target.

NASP

Natianal AIDS/STD Programme

National Cholesterol Education Programme

US programme aimed at reducing high blood cholesterol. www.nhlbi.nih.gov/about/ncep/index.htm

National program on occupational safety and health

A program that includes objectives to be achieved, priorities and means of action formulated to improve occupational safety and health, and means to assess progress. A national program shall promote the development of a national preventative safety and health culture; contribute to the protection of workers by eliminating or minimizing work-related hazards and risks to prevent occupational injuries, diseases and deaths and promote safety and health in the workplace; be formulated on the basis of an analysis of the national situation; include objectives, targets and indicators of progress; be supported by other national programs and plans.

National system for occupational safety and health

Refers to the infrastructure which provides the main framework for implementing the national policy and national programs on occupational safety and health. The national system for occupational safety and health shall include among others (text shortened, you may read the original text): (a) law and regulations, collective agreements where appropriate (b) an authority or body responsible for occupational safety and health (c) mechanisms for ensuring compliance with laws and regulations e.g. inspection (d) arrangements to promote cooperation between management and workers (representatives) The national system shall include where appropriate (text shortened, you may read the original text): (a) a national tripartite advisory body (b) information and advisory services on occupational safety and health (c) provision of occupational safety and health training (d) occupational health services (e) research on occupational safety and health (f) mechanisms for collection and analysis of data on occupational injuries and diseases (g) provisions for collaboration with insurance or social security schemes (h) support mechanisms for improvement of occupational safety and health conditions in micro-enterprises, in small and medium-sized enterprises and in the informal economy.

Natural History Study

A study of the development of a disease over the course of time.

Natural killer cells

Cells in the immune system which attack and destroy infected cells or tumour cells.

Natural Methods

Natural methods of contraception involve couples timing sexual intercourse to avoid the woman's days of fertility during her menstrual cycle. Natural indicators of fertile times are changes in body temperature and/or cervical mucus. However, these methods are NOT reliable at all, especially for teenagers, and, therefore, are NOT recommended.

Natural Methods

Natural methods of contraception involve couples timing sexual intercourse to avoid the woman's days of fertility during her menstrual cycle. Natural indicators of fertile times are changes in body temperature and/or cervical mucus. However, these methods are NOT reliable at all, especially for teenagers, and, therefore, are NOT recommended.

Nausea

Feeling sick.

Nausea

Feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit.

Nebulize

To reduce to a fine spray.

Necrosis

Death of living tissue; specifically : death of a portion of tissue differentially affected by local injury.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)

A medical condition primarily seen in premature infants, where portions of the bowel undergo necrosis (tissue death).

Nef

An HIV gene that influences viral replication; also the protein produced by that gene.

Neonatal

A newborn infant or to the first 28 days of an infant's life

Neonatal death

A death during the first 28 days of life.

Neonate

A newborn child or infant less than 1 month old.

Neoplasm

An abnormal and uncontrolled growth of tissue; a tumour.

Nephrotoxic

Damaging to the kidneys.

Nested PCR

The second round amplification of an already PCR-amplified sequence using a new pair of primers which are internal to the original primers. Typically done when a single PCR reaction generates insufficient amounts of product.

Neural tube defect

Serious abnormality of the central nervous system - brain and spinal cord.

Neuralgia

A sharp pain along the path of a nerve.

Neurological

Relating to the brain or nervous system.

Neuron

Conducting cells of the nervous system.

Neuropathic pain

Nerve pain, involving damage to the actual nerve tissue.

Neuropathy

Damage to the nerves.

Neutralizing Antibody

An antibody that neutralizes (renders harmless) infectious microorganisms. Neutralizing antibodies to HIV block the ability of the virus to infect cells. Contrast with enhancing antibody.

Neutropenia

A shortage of neutrophils.

Neutrophils

Immune cells in the blood which can attack bacteria and fungal infections.

Newborn

Recently born baby up to 1 month of age.

NGO

Abbreviation for ""Non-governmental organization"".

Nipples

The small projections near the center of each breast containing the outlets of the milk ducts.

NNRTIs (or Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors)

A drug (e.g., nevirapine, delavirdine) that inhibits the action of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase enzyme, thus blocking HIV replication. It works in a different way from nucleoside analog drugs; it binds directly to the RT enzyme.

Nociceptive pain

Normal pain, occurs due to the stimulation of 'nociceptors' or pain receptors and is divided into somatic pain and visceral pain.

Nocte

Latin term meaning night.

Nodular

Relating to, characterized by, or occurring in the form of nodules (small masses of rounded or irregular shape).

Noise

Sound that can lead to so called noise-induced hearing loss, tinnitus or stress, or interfere with the ability to hear other sounds, to concentrate, to relax or to communicate.

Non-maleficence

Ethical research principle that means that your research activities should do no harm.

Non-opioid analgesics

Synthetic narcotics that has opiate-like activities but is not derived from opium.

Non-probability sampling

See convenience sampling

Non-reassuring fetal heart rate

An abnormal fetal heart rate.

Nonsense Codon

A codon that signals the termination of the polypeptide chain.

Nonsense Mutation

A point mutation in which a codon specific for an amino-acid is converted into a nonsense codon.

Nosomial

Nosocomial comes from the Greek word nosokomeion meaning hospital (nosos = disease, komeo = to take care of). Nosocomial infections are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit, but secondary to the patient's original condition. Infections are considered nosocomial if they first appear 48 hours or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge. This type of infection is also known as a hospital-acquired infection (or, more generically, healthcare-associated infections).

Notification

Procedure specified in national laws and regulations which establishes the ways in which: - the employer or self-employed person submits information concerning occupational accidents, commuting accidents, dangerous occurrences or incidents; or - the employer, the self-employed person, the insurance institution or others directly concerned submit information concerning a case of occupational disease.

NRTI

Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor, the family of antiretrovirals which includes AZT, ddI, 3TC, d4T, ddC and abacavir.

NSAID

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

NSP

Needle/syringe Programme

NsRTI

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NsRTI

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NsRTI

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NtRTI

Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NtRTI

Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NtRTI

Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor

Nuchal cord

A loop of umbilical cord '360� around the fetal neck.

Nuclease

An enzyme (or group of enzymes) that split nucleic acids into different products.

Nuclease

An enzyme (or group of enzymes) that split nucleic acids into different products.

Nuclease

An enzyme (or group of enzymes) that split nucleic acids into different products.

Nucleic Acid Base

One of the components that make up genetic material. There are two types of bases, purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrmidines (cytosine, thymine and uracil). Bases are complementary and can bind with their counterpart in a process known as base-pairing. Adenine (A) is one member of the base pair A-T (adenine-thymine) in DNA and A-U (adenine-uracil) in RNA. Guanine (G) pairs with cytosine in the formation of DNA. Nucleosides are formed by nitrogenous base and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA). Nucleotides are nucleosides that have a phosphate group attached to one or more of the hydroxyl groups of sugar. Thousands of nucleotides are linked to form a DNA or RNA molecule.

Nucleic Acid Base

One of the components that make up genetic material. There are two types of bases, purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrmidines (cytosine, thymine and uracil). Bases are complementary and can bind with their counterpart in a process known as base-pairing. Adenine (A) is one member of the base pair A-T (adenine-thymine) in DNA and A-U (adenine-uracil) in RNA. Guanine (G) pairs with cytosine in the formation of DNA. Nucleosides are formed by nitrogenous base and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA). Nucleotides are nucleosides that have a phosphate group attached to one or more of the hydroxyl groups of sugar. Thousands of nucleotides are linked to form a DNA or RNA molecule.

Nucleic Acid Base

One of the components that make up genetic material. There are two types of bases, purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrmidines (cytosine, thymine and uracil). Bases are complementary and can bind with their counterpart in a process known as base-pairing. Adenine (A) is one member of the base pair A-T (adenine-thymine) in DNA and A-U (adenine-uracil) in RNA. Guanine (G) pairs with cytosine in the formation of DNA. Nucleosides are formed by nitrogenous base and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA). Nucleotides are nucleosides that have a phosphate group attached to one or more of the hydroxyl groups of sugar. Thousands of nucleotides are linked to form a DNA or RNA molecule.

Nucleoside

One of the building blocks from which DNA and RNA are made. See also nucleotide.

Nucleoside

One of the building blocks from which DNA and RNA are made. See also nucleotide.

Nucleoside

One of the building blocks from which DNA and RNA are made. See also nucleotide.

Nucleoside analogue

Chemical which resembles a nucleotide. Family of antiretrovirals which includes tenofovir.

Nucleotide

Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. Additionally, nucleotides play central roles in metabolism. A nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase (nitrogenous base) and a five-carbon sugar (either ribose or 2'-deoxyribose), and one to three phosphate groups. If all phosphate groups are removed, a nucleotide becomes a nucleoside.

Nucleotide

Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. Additionally, nucleotides play central roles in metabolism. A nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase (nitrogenous base) and a five-carbon sugar (either ribose or 2'-deoxyribose), and one to three phosphate groups. If all phosphate groups are removed, a nucleotide becomes a nucleoside.

Nucleotide

Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. Additionally, nucleotides play central roles in metabolism. A nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase (nitrogenous base) and a five-carbon sugar (either ribose or 2'-deoxyribose), and one to three phosphate groups. If all phosphate groups are removed, a nucleotide becomes a nucleoside.

Nulligravida (nulligravidae)

A woman who has never been pregnant.

Nullipara (nulliparae, nulliparous)

A woman who has never given birth to a child.

Nystagmus

Involuntary usually rapid movement of the eyeballs (as from side to side) occurring normally with dizziness during and after bodily rotation or abnormally following head injury or as a symptom of disease.

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O

Objectives

A specific result that a person or system aims to achieve within a time frame and with available resources.

Objectives

A specific result that a person or system aims to achieve within a time frame and with available resources.

Observational Study

One in which no experimental drug is administered, but the patient's symptoms, laboratory values, and response to treatment are observed during the course of normal medical management.

Observational Study

One in which no experimental drug is administered, but the patient's symptoms, laboratory values, and response to treatment are observed during the course of normal medical management.

Observational Study

One in which no experimental drug is administered, but the patient's symptoms, laboratory values, and response to treatment are observed during the course of normal medical management.

Obstetric

Relating to antenatal care.

Obstetrician

Specialist doctor with extra qualifications in pregnancy and childbirth.

Obstructed labor

Failure of the presenting part to descend through the birth canal despite adequate uterine contractions for mechanical reasons, such as cephalo-pelvic disproportion or malpresentation.

Obtundation

A dulled or reduced level of alertness or consciousness

Occipito Anterior

Occiput of the fetal skull faces anteriorly (absolutely straight without any turning to any of the sides)

Occipito posterior

Occiput faces posteriorly (absolutely straight without any turning to any of the sides)

Occiput

The back part of the fetal skull.

Occupational

Related to work.

Occupational accident

An accident related to work.

Occupational disease (long version)

In the ILO Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health (edition?) and Safety Lesage distinguishes three categories of occupational diseases with respect to the strength of the causal relation. Classic occupational diseases are characterized by a clear, often practically monocausal relation to a specific exposure, for example mesothelioma caused by asbestos, or asthma caused by a specific chemical substance like methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). If the relation is less obvious, the disease is indicated as work-related. Most musculoskeletal diseases and mental health disorders are judged as belonging to this category. Most work-related diseases are considered as multicausal and include work as one of the factors that play a role in the aetiology. Following this line of reasoning, there is a recognizable relation between the working condition and the disease on the individual level (for example between repetitive movements and shoulder complaints), but it is often not clear whether the working conditions are the decisive factor in the development of the disease. Finally, a third group of diseases is distinguished in which a relation between working conditions and health effects can be demonstrated only on a population level. The incidence or prevalence of these diseases is higher in specific occupational groups, but it is difficult to substantiate the nature of the causal relation in, for example, biological terms. One reason may be the lack of specific signs to identify them as work-related. For example, cardiovascular diseases caused by shift work belong to this third category. See also Work-related disease.

Occupational disease (short version)

A disease caused by work. This means that the disease is caused by physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic or psychosocial factors at work. In many countries there are official lists of occupational diseases, including lists of factors which may cause such diseases. ILO guides the countries by the ILO List of Occupational Diseases (revised in 2010).

Occupational ergonomics

An applied science that studies the interaction between people and the work environment. It focuses on matching the job to the worker to ensure a healthy and productive worker.

Occupational health (long version)

The common ILO and WHO definition of occupational health, revised in 1995, says that occupational health should aim at: the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention amongst workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; the placing and maintenance of workers in an occupational environment adapted to their physiological and psychological capabilities; and, to summarize, the adaptation of work to the workers and of each worker to his or her job. The main focus is on three different objectives: (i) the maintenance and promotion of workers' health and working capacity; (ii) the improvement of working environment and work to become conducive to safety and health; and (iii) development of work organizations and working cultures in a direction which supports health and safety at work and, in doing so, also promotes a positive social climate and smooth operation, and may enhance the productivity of the enterprises. The concept of working culture is intended in this context to mean a reflection of the essential value systems adopted by the enterprise concerned. Such a culture is reflected in practice in the managerial systems, personnel policy, principles for participation, training policies and quality management of the enterprise.

Occupational health (short version)

The development, promotion, and maintenance of workplace policies and programs that ensure the physical, mental, and social well-being of employees. These policies and programs strive to: prevent harmful health effects because of the work environment, protect employees from health hazards while on the job, place employees in work environments that are suitable to their physical and mental capacities and other characteristics, and address other factors that may affect an employee’s health and well-being.

Occupational health care

Occupational health care refers to the care of the health of workers. It includes preventive health care, health promotion, in some places also curative health care, first aid and rehabilitation, where appropriate, as well as strategies for prompt recovery and return to work.

Occupational health professionals

These are persons who have been accredited through appropriate procedures to practise a profession related to occupational health or who provide occupational health services according to the provisions of relevant regulations. They may be occupational health physicians, nurses, occupational safety and health inspectors, occupational hygienists, occupational psychologists and specialists involved in ergonomics, toxicology, accident prevention and the improvement of the working environment, as well as in occupational health and safety research and knowledge transfer. Many others, in addition to occupational health and safety professionals, are involved in the protection and promotion of the health of workers, e.g. management and workers' representatives.

Occupational health risk assessment

See Health risk assessment.

Occupational health services

Occupational health services means services entrusted with essentially preventive functions and responsible for advising the employer, the workers and their representatives in the undertaking on: (i) the requirements for establishing and maintaining a safe and healthy working environment which will facilitate optimal physical and mental health in relation to work; (ii) the adaptation of work to the capabilities of workers in the light of their state of physical and mental health.

Occupational health surveillance

Occupational health surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. Surveillance is essential to the planning, implementation and evaluation of occupational health programs and to the control of work-related ill health and injuries, as well as to the protection and promotion of workers' health. Occupational health surveillance includes workers' health surveillance and working environment surveillance.

Occupational health surveillance systems

Occupational health surveillance systems are systems which include a functional capacity for data collection, analysis and dissemination linked to occupational health programs. It refers to all activities at individual, group, enterprise, community, regional and country levels to detect and assess any significant departure from health caused by working conditions, and to monitor workers' general health. Occupational health surveillance programs record instances of occupational exposures or work-related illness, injury or death and monitor trends in their occurrences across different types of economic activities, over time, and between geographical areas.

Occupational hygiene

See Industrial hygiene.

Occupational injury

Death, any personal injury or disease resulting from an occupational accident.

Occupational safety

The maintenance of a work environment that is relatively free from actual or potential hazards that can injure employees.

Occupational safety and health

The discipline dealing with the prevention of work-related injuries and diseases as well as the protection and promotion of the health of workers. It aims at the improvement of working conditions and environment. Members of many different professions (e.g. engineers, physicians, hygienists, psychologists, nurses) contribute to “occupational safety, occupational health, occupational hygiene, well-being at work and improvement of the working environment”.

Ocular

Relating to the eye.

Od

Abbreviation of a Latin term meaning every day.

Odynophagia

Pain on swallowing food and fluids, a symptom often due to disease of the esophagus.

Oedema

Accumulation of fluid below the skin or in the cavities of the body.

Oedema

Accumulation of fluid below the skin or in the cavities of the body.

Oedema, Edema

An accumulation of an excessive amount of watery (serous) fluid in cells, tissues, or serous cavities. Results in the swelling of ankles, fingers or face during pregnancy.

Oesophagus

The tube leading from the throat to the stomach.

Off-Label

A drug prescribed for a condition other than the approved conditions.

OHL

Oral Hairy Leukoplakia

OI

Opportunistic infection.

OI

Opportunistic infection.

OI

Opportunistic infection.

Oligohydraminos

An abnormal pregnancy condition that refers to an amniotic fluid volume that is less than expected for gestational age.

Oligonucleotide

A short molecule consisting of several linked nucleotides (typically between 10 and 60) covalently attached by phosphodiester bonds.

Om

Abbreviation of a Latin term meaning every night.

On

Abbreviation of a Latin term meaning every night.

Oocysts

A sporozoan zygote undergoing sporogenous development.

Open Label Trial

A clinical trial of a drug where researchers and patients know the name of the drug or therapy being administered.

Operative (vaginal) delivery

A delivery in which the operator uses forceps or a vacuum device to assist the mother in transitioning the fetus to extrauterine life.

Opiate

A remedy containing or derived from opium

Opiate

A remedy containing or derived from opium

Opioid analgesics

Synthetic narcotics that has opiate-like activities but is not derived from opium

Opioid analgesics

Synthetic narcotics that have opiate-like activities but is not derived from opium

Opportunistic Infection (OI)

An illness caused by a microorganism that usually does not cause disease in persons with healthy immune systems, but which may cause serious illness when the immune system is suppressed.

Opportunistic Infection (OI)

An illness caused by a microorganism that usually does not cause disease in persons with healthy immune systems, but which may cause serious illness when the immune system is suppressed.

Opportunistic Infection (OI)

An illness caused by a microorganism that usually does not cause disease in persons with healthy immune systems, but which may cause serious illness when the immune system is suppressed.

Opportunistic Infection (OI)

An illness caused by a microorganism that usually does not cause disease in persons with healthy immune systems, but which may cause serious illness when the immune system is suppressed.

Opportunistic Infections

Infections that take advantage of a person's weakened immune system. They are the most common complications of HIV/AIDS.

Opportunistic Infections

Infections that take advantage of a person's weakened immune system. They are the most common complications of HIV/AIDS.

Oppression

The exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, cruel, or unjust manner.

Oppression

The exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, cruel, or unjust manner.

Oral contraceptives

A birth control pill taken by mouth. Most oral contraceptives include both estrogen and progesterone. When given in certain amounts and at certain times in the menstrual cycle, these hormones prevent the ovary from releasing an egg for fertilization.

Oral Sex

Oral Sex involves stimulating someone's genitals with your mouth.

Oral Sex

Oral Sex involves stimulating someone's genitals with your mouth.

Organomegaly

Enlargement of the organs

Orgasm

The point during sexual activity when sexual pleasure is the strongest.

Orgasm

The point during sexual activity when sexual pleasure is the strongest.

Ostracism

A method of temporary banishment by popular vote without trial or special accusation practiced in ancient Greece. Exclusion by general consent of the society from common privileges or social acceptance.

OTC

Abbreviation for ""over the counter,"" referring to drugs available without a prescription.

Outlier

In statistics such as stratified samples, an outlier is an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data. Statistics derived from data sets that include outliers will often be misleading.

Outlier

In statistics such as stratified samples, an outlier is an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data. Statistics derived from data sets that include outliers will often be misleading.

Outlier

In statistics such as stratified samples, an outlier is an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data. Statistics derived from data sets that include outliers will often be misleading.

Ovary

One of usually two organs in women and female animals that produce eggs and female hormones.

Ovary

One of usually two organs in women and female animals that produce eggs and female hormones.

Ovary

The female reproductive organ in which ova or eggs are produced.

Overt research

Overt research is done openly with the participants’ full knowledge.

Ovulation

The periodic release of a mature egg from an ovary. This usually happens around the middle of a women's menstrual cycle.

Ovulation

The periodic release of a mature egg from an ovary. This usually happens around the middle of a women's menstrual cycle.

Ovulation

The release of a ovum (egg) from the ovary. It occurs two weeks, or an average of 14 days, before the beginning of a woman's period.

Oxytocin

A hormone made in the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland. It can also be synthetically made and administered. Oxytocin stimulates the uterus to contract during childbirth, postpartum and lactation by causing smooth muscles to contract in the uterus (womb) and the mammary glands in the breast. It aids in maternal child bonding.

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P

P-value

A probability value that is reported in experiments such as clinical trials. The p-value indicates how likely it is that the result obtained by the experiment is due to chance alone. A p-value of less than .05 is considered statistically significant, that is, not likely to be due to chance alone

P-value

A probability value that is reported in experiments such as clinical trials. The p-value indicates how likely it is that the result obtained by the experiment is due to chance alone. A p-value of less than .05 is considered statistically significant, that is, not likely to be due to chance alone

P-value

A probability value that is reported in experiments such as clinical trials. The p-value indicates how likely it is that the result obtained by the experiment is due to chance alone. A p-value of less than .05 is considered statistically significant, that is, not likely to be due to chance alone

Pain

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Pain is what the patient says hurts.

Pain

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Pain is what the patient says hurts.

Palliative

To do with relieving rather than curing symptoms.

Palliative

To do with relieving rather than curing symptoms.

Palliative Care

An approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing life-threatening illness, through the prevention, assessment and treatment of pain and other physical and psychosocial problems.

Palliative Care

An approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing life-threatening illness, through the prevention, assessment and treatment of pain and other physical and psychosocial problems.

Palliative Care

An approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing life-threatening illness, through the prevention, assessment and treatment of pain and other physical and psychosocial problems.

Palliative Care

An approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing life-threatening illness, through the prevention, assessment and treatment of pain and other physical and psychosocial problems.

Pallor

Deficiency of color especially of the face.

Pallor

Deficiency of color especially of the face.

Palpable

Capable of being touched or felt; especially : capable of being examined by palpation.

Palpable

Capable of being touched or felt; especially capable of being examined by palpation.

Palpitation

A rapid pulsation; especially : an abnormally rapid beating of the heart when excited by violent exertion, strong emotion, or disease.

Palpitation

A rapid pulsation; especially an abnormally rapid beating of the heart when excited by violent exertion, strong emotion, or disease.

Pancreas

A glandular organ situated behind the stomach that secretes insulin and pancreatic digestive enzymes.

Pancreatitis

A condition of the pancreas causing severe abdominal pain, shock and collapse, which can be fatal.

Pancytopenia

Low numbers of all blood cells.

Pap smear

Also known as a cervical smear. A method of screening the cervix to detect precancerous and cancerous cells.

Papule

A small solid, usually a conical elevation of the skin caused by inflammation, accumulated secretion, or hypertrophy of tissue elements.

Paracoccidioidomycosis

A fungal infection endemic to South and Central America. The disease develops in the lungs and may become chronic in immunosuppressed individuals.

Paradigm

A theoretical framework that forms the basis for hypotheses and explanations.

Paraesthesia

Abnormal sensations of touch on the skin.

Paraphernalia

Items needed for the performance of a task or activity (e.g. injection paraphernalia).

Parasites

An organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on, or in, a different organism while contributing nothing to the survival of its host.

Parasites

An organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on, or in, a different organism while contributing nothing to the survival of its host.

Parenteral Nutrition

A regimen that delivers nutrients intravenously, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract. Partial parenteral nutrition (PPN) delivers some nutrients orally and some intravenously. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) delivers all nutrient intravenously, typically into a large central vein via a chest catheter.

Parenteral transmission

transfer of infected blood, e.g. by sharing injection equipment/needles.

Paresthesia

An abnormal touch sensation, such as burning or prickling often in the absence of an external stimulus

Parity

The number of pregnancies carried to a viable gestational age. Normally around 24 week's gestation.

Parotitis

Inflammation and swelling of one or both parotid glands or other salivary glands (as in mumps).

Paroxysmal

Of, relating to, or marked by paroxysms (a sudden attack or spasm).

Parts per million (PPM)

Parts of gas or vapour per million parts of air by volume at room temperature. For example, 1 cubic centimetre of gas in 1 million cubic centimeters of air has a concentration of 1 PPM.

Parturition

Childbirth, the act of giving birth.

Passive Immunity

Immunity acquired by transfer of antibodies, either naturally (e.g., from mother to fetus) or by injection.

Pathogenesis

The development of a particular disease, including the specific events involved, bodily tissues or systems affected, mechanisms of damage, and timing of the course of disease.

Pathogens

Any foreign agent or organism harmful to the body. Typically, pathogens are microscopic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites such as worms. In each case, the infecting organism uses the host body to live and grow, and is often restricted to a particular organ. Sometimes this affects normal cellular functions, leading to illness. Some bacteria also secrete proteins that are toxic for the host, leading to mild effects such as diarrhea, or to fatal effects. Pathogens exhibit a unique set of proteins, which allow them to infect and grow in their hosts; these proteins are the target of therapeutic intervention.

PBMC

Abbreviation for peripheral blood mononuclear cell, a single-nucleus white blood cell (e.g., monocyte) that circulates in the blood.

Pc

Abbreviation of a Latin term meaning after food.

PCN

Pencillin

PCP

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, a form of pneumonia, which is an AIDS defining illness.

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction, a method of amplifying fragments of genetic material so that they can be detected. Some viral load tests use this method.

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction, a method of amplifying fragments of genetic material so that they can be detected. Some viral load tests use this method.

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction, a method of amplifying fragments of genetic material so that they can be detected. Some viral load tests use this method.

Peak Level

The highest concentration of a drug achieved in the body.

Pediatric

Of or relating to children.

Peer education

Training and supporting members of a group with the same background, experience and values as the group to effect change amongst other members of that group. It is often used to influence knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors at the individual level. Worldwide, peer education is one of the most widely effective strategies to raise HIV/AIDS awareness

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Inflammation and infection of the female genital tract. It normally occurs when a sexually transmitted bacteria spreads from the vagina to the uterus.

Penis

The male sexual organ used for reproduction and urination.

Penis

The male sexual organ used for reproduction and urination.

PEP

Post exposure prophylaxis, a method of preventing infection.

Percutaneous

Effected or performed through the skin.

Percutaneous

Effected or performed through the skin.

Percutaneous

Effected or performed through the skin.

Perianal

Around the anus.

Pericardial

Situated around the heart.

Pericarditis

Inflammation of the pericardium (the conical sac of serous membrane that encloses the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels of vertebrates).

Perinatal

Around the time of birth.

Perinatal

Around the time of birth.

Perinatal

A term with widely varying definitions across countries, due in part to legal variations in the time period that defines stillbirth. The ICD-10 defines 'perinatal' as the time period starting at 22 completed weeks (154 days) gestation and lasting through seven days after birth.

Perineal tear

A spontaneous laceration of the skin and other soft tissue structures in the perineum.

Perineum

The skin between the vagina and the anus.

Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC)

A single-nucleus white blood cell (e.g., monocyte) that circulates in the blood.

Peripheral neuropathy

Damage to the nerves of the hands and/or feet, causing symptoms ranging from numbness to excruciating pain.

Personal data

Personal data are any information related to an identified or identifiable person; minimum requirements for confidentiality should be established for health data.

Personal protective equipment (PPE)

Any device worn by a worker to protect against hazards, as a barrier between himself or herself and the hazardous agent. Some examples are: respirators, gloves, ear plugs, hard hats, safety goggles and safety shoes.

Phagocyte

A scavenger white blood cell (e.g., neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil, monocyte, macrophage) that engulfs and destroys dead cells, bacteria and other debris. Once the foreign matter is ingested, phagocytes produce toxic chemicals (e.g., hydrogen peroxide) to kill the invader.

Pharmacogenomics

The study of the stratification of the pharmacological response to a drug by a population based on the genetic variation of that population. It has long been known that different individuals in a population respond to the same drug differently, and that these variations are be due to variations in the molecular receptors being affected by the drug or to differences in metabolic enzymes that clear the drug. Pharmacogenomics studies these variations at the molecular level. By identifying and classifying all the tolerable variations of a molecular receptor known to exist in a population, and then performing systematic studies of the effect of the drug on each of the variants, one can hope to predict or constrain the use of the drug to different subgroups. Applications of pharmacogenomics include reducing side effects; customized drugs; improved clinical trials; and the rescue of some drugs that have been banned due to severe side effects in a small percentage of the eligible population.

Pharmacognosy

A branch of pharmacy which deals with the identification and analysis of the plant and animal tissues from which drugs may be extracted.

Pharmacokinetic Trial

A clinical trial of an experimental drug that measures the body's ability to absorb and metabolize a drug.

Pharmacokinetics

The study of the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs in the body.

Pharmacology

The science of drugs, their sources and how they work; the specialty of preparing and dispensing drugs.

Pharmacology

The science of drugs, their sources and how they work; the specialty of preparing and dispensing drugs.

Pharmalogical boosting

A subsequent dose given some time after initial administration of a vaccine or drug to enhance or restore its effectiveness.

Pharyngeal

Relating to or located in the region of the pharynx.

Pharyngitis

Inflammation of the pharynx.

Phase I

The earliest stage of a clinical trial in humans, designed to see if a drug, or vaccine is safe and what the maximum safe dose is.

Phase I

The earliest stage of a clinical trial in humans, designed to see if a drug, or vaccine is safe and what the maximum safe dose is.

Phase I

The earliest stage of a clinical trial in humans, designed to see if a drug, or vaccine is safe and what the maximum safe dose is.

Phase I/II

Stage of a clinical trial to see what the most effective dose of a drug is.

Phase I/II

Stage of a clinical trial to see what the most effective dose of a drug is.

Phase I/II

Stage of a clinical trial to see what the most effective dose of a drug is.

Phase II

Stage of a clinical trial to see if a drug is effective in the short-term.

Phase II

Stage of a clinical trial to see if a drug is effective in the short-term.

Phase II

Stage of a clinical trial to see if a drug is effective in the short-term.

Phase III

Stage of a clinical trial when the experimental drug is given to large numbers of people, at the dose determined in phase I or phase II. Often the trial drug is compared with a treatment already in use or with an inactive placebo.

Phase III

Stage of a clinical trial when the experimental drug is given to large numbers of people, at the dose determined in phase I or phase II. Often the trial drug is compared with a treatment already in use or with an inactive placebo.

Phase III

Stage of a clinical trial when the experimental drug is given to large numbers of people, at the dose determined in phase I or phase II. Often the trial drug is compared with a treatment already in use or with an inactive placebo.

Phenotype

Trait or behaviour which results from a particular genotype.

Phosphorylation

Process by which the NRTI drugs are converted within human cells into forms that inhibit HIV.

Physical agent

A source of energy (for example, noise, radiation, vibration, heat, cold) that affects the body, a part of the body, or any of its functions. The effects may be beneficial or harmful.

Physical work environment

The part of the workplace facility that can be detected by human senses or by physical, chemical, biological or ergonomic assessment including the structure, air, machines, furniture, products, chemicals, materials and processes that are present or that occur in the workplace, and which can affect the physical or mental safety, health and well-being of workers. If the workers perform their tasks outdoors or in a vehicle that location is their physical work environment. See also Psychosocial work environment.

PI

Protease Inhibitor

PI

Protease Inhibitor

PI

Protease Inhibitor

Pica

An abnormal craving for and eating of substances (as chalk, dirt, or bones) of no nutritional value. There is a possible association between pica and iron deficiency anemia.

Pill (Hormonal Oral Contraceptive)

A contraceptive in the form of a pill containing estrogen and progestin to inhibit ovulation and so prevent conception.

Pill (Hormonal Oral Contraceptive)

A contraceptive in the form of a pill containing estrogen and progestin to inhibit ovulation and so prevent conception.

PK

Abbreviation for pharmacokinetics: a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism. In practice, this applies mainly to drug substances.

Placebo

A pill or liquid which looks and tastes exactly like a real drug, but contains no active substance.

Placebo

A pill or liquid which looks and tastes exactly like a real drug, but contains no active substance.

Placebo

A pill or liquid which looks and tastes exactly like a real drug, but contains no active substance.

Placenta

An organ that is bound to the mother's uterine lining, providing hormones and transporting essential nutrition and oxygen to the fetus through the umbilical cord. 'After delivery, it may be called the 'afterbirth.'

Placenta accreta

A serious pregnancy condition that occurs when all or part of the placenta attaches abnormally to the myometrium (the muscular layer of the uterine wall).

Placenta praevia

The condition in which the placenta has grown over the internal cervical opening, presenting a danger of heavy bleeding at labor.

Placental abruption (abruptio placentae)

Detachment or separation of the placenta at any time prior to delivery. This can be a life threatening condition for both mother and fetus.

Plagiarism

‘Copying and pasting’ excerpts of papers, referring to ideas, or other sources into your own work without referencing them properly.

Plasma

The fluid portion of the blood.

Plasma

The fluid portion of the blood.

Plasma

The fluid portion of the blood.

Plasmid

Genetic material that exists outside the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. Genetically engineered plasmids are often used in biotechnology.

Platelet

A minute colorless anucleate disk-like body in the blood that is derived from fragments of megakaryocyte cytoplasm and is released from the bone marrow into the blood. It assists in blood clotting by adhering to other platelets and to damaged epithelium.

Pleural

Of or relating to the pleura (the body cavity that houses the lungs) or the sides of the thorax.

Pleuritis

Inflammation of the pleura that is typically characterized by sudden onset, painful and difficult respiration, and exudation of fluid or fibrinous (marked by the presence of fibrin) material into the pleural cavity.

PLHIV

People living with HIV

PLHIV

People living with HIV

PLHIV

People living with HIV

PLHIV

People living with HIV

PLWHA

Person Living With HIV/AIDS.

PLWHA

Person Living With HIV/AIDS.

PLWHA

Person Living With HIV/AIDS.

PLWHA

Person Living With HIV/AIDS.

PML

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a serious brain infection.

PMTCT

Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV.

PMTCT

Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV.

PMTCT

Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV.

PMTCT

Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV.

PO

Per os (by way of mouth).

Point mutation

A mutation in which a single nucleotide in a DNA sequence is substituted by another nucleotide.

Pol

The HIV gene that encodes the replicative enzymes (protease, integrase, reverse transcriptase); also the protein produced by that gene.

Polyacrylamide gel

Hydrated polyacrylamide that is used to provide a medium for the suspension of a substance that is subjected to gel electrophoresis.

Polyhydraminos

A medical condition describing an excess of amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac.

Polymerase

An enzyme that cleaves polymers, the chemical compounds formed by the linkage of molecular pieces.

Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay (or PCR Assay)

A highly sensitive test that can detect small amounts of DNA or RNA in blood or tissue samples using an amplification technique that multiplies the existing DNA/RNA so that it can more easily be detected. In HIV infection, PCR is used to determine a patient's viral load.

Polymorphism

The quality or state of existing in or assuming different forms.

Polyneuropathy

A type of peripheral neuropathy that involves damage to multiple nerves of the peripheral nervous system. Demyelinating polyneuropathy (which involves the destruction of the myelin sheath surrounding the neurons) and sensory axonal polyneuropathy are common in persons with HIV disease. Symptoms may include weakness and painful tingling or burning sensations.

Polyprotein

A long thread of proteins produced during viral replication. The polyprotein is broken down by the protease enzyme into smaller components, which are then assembled into new virus particles.

Poppers

Amyl, butyl or isobutyl nitrite, are recreational drugs sniffed during sex to both intensify the experience and relax anal sphincter muscles.

Population

The group of people that you want your research results to be valid for.

Porn Addiction

A behavioral addiction characterized by compulsive, repeated use of pornographic material until it causes serious negative consequences to one's physical, mental, social, and/or financial well-being.

Porn Addiction

A behavioral addiction characterized by compulsive, repeated use of pornographic material until it causes serious negative consequences to one's physical, mental, social, and/or financial well-being.

Pornography

The representation in books, magazines, photographs, films, and other media of scenes of sexual behavior that are erotic and are designed to arouse sexual interest in its audience.

Pornography

The representation in books, magazines, photographs, films, and other media of scenes of sexual behavior that are erotic and are designed to arouse sexual interest in its audience.

Post exposure prophylaxis

is any prophylactic treatment started immediately after exposure to a pathogen (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent infection by the pathogen and the development of disease.

Post exposure prophylaxis

is any prophylactic treatment started immediately after exposure to a pathogen (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent infection by the pathogen and the development of disease.

Post exposure prophylaxis

is any prophylactic treatment started immediately after exposure to a pathogen (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent infection by the pathogen and the development of disease.

Post exposure prophylaxis

Prophylactic treatment started immediately after exposure to a pathogen (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent infection by the pathogen and the development of disease.

Postnatal

After ('post') the birth ('natal').

Postpartum

Occurring in or being the period following parturition: after childbirth.

Postpartum

Occurring in or being the period following parturition: after childbirth.

Postpartum

Occurring in or being the period following parturition: after childbirth.

Postpartum

The period of time following childbirth.

Postpartum depression

A serious mental health problem that occurs when the baby blues do not fade away or when signs of depression start one or more months after childbirth. The symptoms of postpartum depression are the same as the symptoms of depression that occur at other times in life.

Postpartum hemorrhage (Primary)

The loss of more than 500 ml or 1,000 ml of blood within the first 24 hours following childbirth.

Postterm pregnancy

Prolonged pregnancy; a pregnancy that has reached or extended beyond 42 0/7 weeks of gestation from the last menstrual period (LMP).

Potency

A measure of drug activity established by determining the dose of a drug required to produce a standard effect. Potency varies inversely with the magnitude of the dose required to produce a given effect. Thus, if twice the dose of drug ""X"" is required to produce analgesia equivalent to that produced by a dose of aspirin, it may be said that drug ""X"" is half as potent as aspirin.

Potentiation

An increase in activity or effectiveness; an interaction between drugs that results in a synergistic effect.

Power Relations

The way in which two people in different relations of power relate to one another.

Power Relations

The way in which two people in different relations of power relate to one another.

Poxvirus

One of a large family of viruses (e.g., smallpox) that typically cause skin eruptions.

PPD Test (or mantoux test)

A test that uses an injection of a purified protein derivative of tuberculin to test for prior exposure to mycobacterium tuberculosis. A positive reaction is indicated by induration (redness and swelling) at the injection site.

pr

per rectum

Pre exposure prohylaxis

is any medical or public health procedure used before exposure to the disease causing agent, its purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure a disease. Related to HIV PrEP refers to an experimental HIV-prevention strategy that would use antiretrovirals to protect HIV-negative people from HIV infection.

Pre exposure prohylaxis

is any medical or public health procedure used before exposure to the disease causing agent, its purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure a disease. Related to HIV PrEP refers to an experimental HIV-prevention strategy that would use antiretrovirals to protect HIV-negative people from HIV infection.

Pre exposure prohylaxis

is any medical or public health procedure used before exposure to the disease causing agent, its purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure a disease. Related to HIV PrEP refers to an experimental HIV-prevention strategy that would use antiretrovirals to protect HIV-negative people from HIV infection.

Pre-eclampsia, PE, PET,

Pre-eclampsia or pre-eclampsia toxemia. A specific syndrome of pregnancy, defined by edema, protein in urine, and hypertension in the mother. Diagnostic criteria can vary. Condition can progress to seizures (eclampsia), a rare but potentially disastrous condition, curable only by delivery of the fetus.

Precarious employment

Employment terms that may reduce social security and stability for workers, defined by temporality, powerlessness, lack of benefits, lack of protection and low income. Flexible, contingent, non-standard temporary work contracts do not necessarily, but often provide an inferior economic status.

Preclinical Testing

Testing of an experimental drug in the laboratory or in animals prior to testing in humans.

Pregnancy

The condition of a woman that is going to have a baby.

Pregnancy

The condition of a woman that is going to have a baby.

Pregnancy induced hypertension

The development of new hypertension in a pregnant woman after 20 weeks gestation without the presence of protein in the urine or other signs of preeclampsia.

Premature baby (preterm baby)

A baby born alive before the start of the 37th week of gestation.

Premature labor (preterm labor)

The regular contractions of the uterus resulting in changes in the cervix that start before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Changes in the cervix include effacement (the cervix thins out) and dilation (the cervix opens so that the fetus can enter the birth canal).

Premature rupture of membranes (PROM)

Spontaneous rupture of membranes prior to the onset of labor.

PrEP

pre exposure prophylaxis

Presentation

The part of the baby which is delivered first, such as breech, vertex/cephalic or compound (e.g. arm with the head)

Presenteeism

Attending the job while being sick, physically or mentally, resulting in reduced productivity and reduced wellness.

Presenting part (of the fetus)

Refers to which anatomical part of the fetus is leading, that is, is closest to the pelvic inlet of the birth canal. According to the leading part, this is identified as a cephalic, breech, or shoulder presentation.

Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM)

Spontaneous rupture of membranes prior to the onset of labor occurring before 37 weeks of gestation.

Prevalence

The number of individuals with a condition in a specific population. The prevalence rate is determined by dividing the number of people with the condition by the total population.

Prevalence

The number of individuals with a condition in a specific population. The prevalence rate is determined by dividing the number of people with the condition by the total population.

Prevalence

The number of individuals with a condition in a specific population. The prevalence rate is determined by dividing the number of people with the condition by the total population.

Preventive maintenance

A system for preventing machinery and equipment failure through scheduled regular maintenance, knowledge of reliability of parts, maintenance of service records, scheduled replacement of parts, and maintenance of inventories of the least reliable parts and parts scheduled for replacement.

Preventive Vaccine (or prophylactic vaccine)

One that is intended to prevent a disease from occurring by priming the immune system to respond to a pathogenic organism.

Primary health care

Primary health care is essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and the community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work.

Primary HIV Infection

The initial stage of infection with HIV, prior to the development of antibodies. Primary HIV infection may be accompanied by acute retroviral syndrome, characterized by flu-like symptoms including fever, malaise, enlarged lymph glands, sore throat, skin rash, and muscle and/or joint aches.

Primary HIV Infection

The initial stage of infection with HIV, prior to the development of antibodies. Primary HIV infection may be accompanied by acute retroviral syndrome, characterized by flu-like symptoms including fever, malaise, enlarged lymph glands, sore throat, skin rash, and muscle and/or joint aches.

Primary HIV Infection

The initial stage of infection with HIV, prior to the development of antibodies. Primary HIV infection may be accompanied by acute retroviral syndrome, characterized by flu-like symptoms including fever, malaise, enlarged lymph glands, sore throat, skin rash, and muscle and/or joint aches.

Primary research

Primary research collects new data, using various methods of data collection, such as questionnaires, observations, interviews and focus group discussions.

Primer

A short oligonucleotide that provides a free 3' end. It is a strand of nucleic acid that serves as a starting point for DNA replication.

Primigravida

A woman who is pregnant for the first time.

Primipara

A woman who has given birth for the first time to a baby over 500 g or 20 weeks of gestations age.

Principal Neutralizing Determinant

The part of an antigen that most reliably induces a protective immune response. The principal neutralizing determinant of HIV is the V3 loop of the envelope glycoprotein gp120.

Privileges

A right, immunity or benefit that is given to/ enjoyed by some people and not others.

Privileges

A right, immunity or benefit that is given to/ enjoyed by some people and not others.

Probability

The likelihood of an event; usually expressed as the proportion of those experiencing the event over those who could experience the event (those at risk).

Probability sampling

See random sampling

Procedure

A step-by-step description of how to do a task, job, or activity properly.

Prodrome

A set of symptoms or signs (e.g., itching, tingling, pain) that indicate the onset of a disease.

Prodrug

An inactive form of a drug that exerts its effects after metabolic changes within the body convert it to a usable or active form.

Progesterone

A female hormone, the principal hormone that prepares the uterus to receive and sustain fertilized eggs.

Progesterone

A female hormone, the principal hormone that prepares the uterus to receive and sustain fertilized eggs.

Progesterone

A steroid hormone released by the corpus luteum that stimulates the uterus to prepare for pregnancy.

Prognosis

Likely outcome, such as the risk of disease progression.

Prognosis

Likely outcome, such as the risk of disease progression.

Prognosis

Likely outcome, such as the risk of disease progression.

Proinflammatory Cytokine

A chemical messenger (e.g., IL-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor) produced by the body that promotes an inflammatory immune response.

Prolactin

A hormone released from the pituitary gland that stimulates milk production after childbirth.

Prolapsed cord

A complication that occurs during delivery of the fetus. The umbilical cord drops down through the open cervix into the vagina ahead of the baby. The cord can then become compressed cutting off blood flow to the baby.

Proliferation

Rapid or uncontrolled reproduction or replication.

Prolonged labor

Onset of regular, rhythmical painful contractions accompanied by cervical dilation where labor is longer than 24 hours. (It is best to also qualify what stage of labor has become prolonged i.e. prolonged latent phase of labor should last no more than 8 hours. Prolonged active phase of labor should last no longer than 12 hours duration).

Prolonged pregnancy

A post-term (prolonged) pregnancy.

PROM

Abbreviation for ""premature rupture of membranes"".

PROM

Abbreviation for 'premature rupture of membranes'.

Prophylaxis (PX)

A treatment or protection to prevent a disease or condition before it occurs (primary prophylaxis) or recurs (secondary prophylaxis). Example: bactrim administered to prevent PCP.

Prophylaxis (PX)

A treatment or protection to prevent a disease or condition before it occurs (primary prophylaxis) or recurs (secondary prophylaxis). Example: bactrim administered to prevent PCP.

Prophylaxis (PX)

A treatment or protection to prevent a disease or condition before it occurs (primary prophylaxis) or recurs (secondary prophylaxis). Example: bactrim administered to prevent PCP.

Prospective Study

One that looks forward in time. Patients are selected and their progression is followed. A prospective cohort study follows a specific group of people over a period of time.

Prostaglandins

A steroid hormone normally produced by the ovary after ovulation and by the placenta during pregnancy.

Protease (or proteinase)

An enzyme that cleaves proteins. HIV protease cleaves the large precursor proteins produced from viral RNA into the component parts (e.g., enzymes and structural proteins) that are then assembled into new viral particles. Protease is essential for the production of infectious new virions.

Protease Inhibitor

A class of anti-HIV drug that prevents creation of an HIV-specific protease.

Protease Inhibitor

A class of anti-HIV drug that prevents creation of an HIV-specific protease.

Protease Inhibitor

A class of anti-HIV drug that prevents creation of an HIV-specific protease.

Protein

A substance which forms the structure of most cells and enzymes.

Protein

A substance which forms the structure of most cells and enzymes.

Proteinuria

The presence of an excessive amount of protein in the urine, which may indicate kidney damage.

Protocol

The official prospectus (plan) of a clinical trial. The protocol explains the purpose of the experimental treatment and how results will be tested and evaluated. It also contains information about drug dosing, duration, and inclusion/exclusion criteria.

Protozoa

A group of single-celled animals, a few of which cause human disease.

Protracted labor

Protracted labor is abnormally slow cervical dilation or fetal descent during active labor. Diagnosis is clinical. Treatment is with oxytocin, operative vaginal delivery, or cesarean delivery.

Provider initiated testing and counseling (PITC)

Individuals are offered counseling and an HIV test while receiving routine healthcare e.g. during antenatal care. HIV testing is not mandatory in this setting and does not affect the provision of other aspects of healthcare.

Proviral DNA

Retroviral DNA which is incorporated in a stable way in the DNA of the host.

Pruritic

Relating to or marked by itching.

Pruritic

Relating to or marked by itching.

Pruritus

Localized or generalized itching due to irritation of sensory nerve endings.

Pruritus

Localized or generalized itching due to irritation of sensory nerve endings.

Psoriasis

A disease in which the skin develops raised, rough, reddened areas.

Psychiatry

A branch of medicine that treats people, using drugs and other physical methods, to change the way they act and feel.

Psychology

A branch of medicine that tries to explain why people act, think and feel the way they do.

Psychosocial

Refers to factors that affect the psychological or social realm. Psychosocial factors (e.g., socioeconomic status, education, family situation) can make an important contribution to disease risk and progression and are essential aspects of a person's well-being.

Psychosocial work environment

The content of work and work demands, the social relationships at work, the organization of work and the work culture, which each can affect the mental and physical well-being of workers including management. All these work aspects are sometimes referred to as workplace stressors, which may have cognitive, emotional or motivational effects on workers. See also Physical work environment.

PTB

Pulmonary tuberculosis

Puberty

A normal phase of development that occurs when a child's body transitions into an adult body and readies for the possibility of reproduction. Puberty describes the physical and psychological changes that occur that make an adolescent able to reproduce. Generally, girls enter puberty earlier than boys. The bodies of some girls begin to change as early as 8; others may not start until they are 14. Boys' bodies usually start changing from ages 10 to 12.

Puberty

A normal phase of development that occurs when a child's body transitions into an adult body and readies for the possibility of reproduction. Puberty describes the physical and psychological changes that occur that make an adolescent able to reproduce. Generally, girls enter puberty earlier than boys. The bodies of some girls begin to change as early as 8; others may not start until they are 14. Boys' bodies usually start changing from ages 10 to 12.

Pubic Lice

These are little insects that become attached to the pubic hairs around the penis and vagina. They feed on human blood. You can get pubic lice through vaginal, oral or anal intercourse, and the lice are also spread through touching of the vagina or penis. Even though it is uncommon, pubic lice can also be spread through towels and sheets. The most common symptom is irritation and itching of the penis or vagina. Lice creams and shampoos can kill the lice. However, they do not kill the eggs, and you will need to remove the eggs yourself with a lice-comb.

Pubic Lice

These are little insects that become attached to the pubic hairs around the penis and vagina. They feed on human blood. You can get pubic lice through vaginal, oral or anal intercourse, and the lice are also spread through touching of the vagina or penis. Even though it is uncommon, pubic lice can also be spread through towels and sheets. The most common symptom is irritation and itching of the penis or vagina. Lice creams and shampoos can kill the lice. However, they do not kill the eggs, and you will need to remove the eggs yourself with a lice-comb.

Public Speaking

The act or skill of speaking to a usually large group of people.

Public Speaking

The act or skill of speaking to a usually large group of people.

Puerperium

The period from the end of the third stage of labor until involution of the uterus is complete, usually lasting between 3 and 6 weeks.

Pulmonary

Affecting the lungs.

Purine

A nitrogen-containing compound with a double-ring structure in nucleic acids; the purine bases in DNA and RNA are adenine and guanine.

Pustule

A small circumscribed elevation of the skin containing pus and having an inflamed base.

Pyramidal tract

A certain group of nerve fibers, provides for direct cortical control and initiation of skilled movements, especially those related to speech and involving the hand and fingers.

Pyrimidine

A nitrogen-containing compound with a single six-membered ring structure. The pyrimidine bases are thymidine, cytosine and uracil.

Pyrogenic

Producing or produced by fever.

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Q

Q4h

Abbreviation of a Latin term meaning every four hours.

Qd

Abbreviation of a Latin term meaning once every day.

Qualitative

Relating to, or expressed in terms of, quality. Qualitative research is based on individual, often subjective, analysis.

Qualitative research

Qualitative research aims to gain an in-depth understanding of human behavior, decision making and underlying reasons and motivations. It never only describes a problem (the what, the where and the who), but gives insight into the complex context of a phenomenon (the why, the how).

Quantitative

Relating to, or expressed in terms of, quantity. Quantitative research is based on numerical data.

Quantitative research

This is a systematic study in n objectively observable, measurable way via statistical and/or mathematical data collection methods.

Quiescent

Refers to a state of resting, inactivity, or latency.

Quinolone

A member of a class of synthetic antibacterial drugs that are derivatives of hydroxylated quinolines and which inhibit the replication of bacterial DNA.

Quiz

A set of questions about a particular subject that people try to answer to test their knowledge, or as a game or competition, in the form of a short spoken or written test.

Quiz

A set of questions about a particular subject that people try to answer to test their knowledge, or as a game or competition, in the form of a short spoken or written test.

Qw

Abbreviation of a Latin term meaning every week.

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R

R0

Basic reproduction number. The average number of secondary cases that arise from a new case of infection.

Radiation

The energy transmitted by waves through space or some medium. There are two types of radiation: ionizing (for example, X-Rays or radiation from a radioactive device), and non-ionizing radiation (for example, infra-red radiation, ultraviolet radiation).

Radical

A highly reactive molecule that may pass intact from one compound to another, but does not normally exist in a free state.

Radioimmunoassay

A procedure for detecting antigens or antibodies using radioactive-labeled complement proteins.

Radiotherapy

Treatment using radium or other radioactive matter

Random sampling

Random sampling is that every unit in the chosen population has an equal chance of ending up in the sample.

Randomized Trial

An experiment arranged to produce a chance distribution of subjects into different treatment or control arms. Randomization is done to cancel out the influence of factors that are not under study. With successful randomization, the chance of one individual being placed in a given study arm is independent of the placement of others, and the only differences between the groups are those intended by the investigator (e.g., different drugs or therapy to be administered to each arm).

Randomized Trial

An experiment arranged to produce a chance distribution of subjects into different treatment or control arms. Randomization is done to cancel out the influence of factors that are not under study. With successful randomization, the chance of one individual being placed in a given study arm is independent of the placement of others, and the only differences between the groups are those intended by the investigator (e.g., different drugs or therapy to be administered to each arm).

Randomized Trial

An experiment arranged to produce a chance distribution of subjects into different treatment or control arms. Randomization is done to cancel out the influence of factors that are not under study. With successful randomization, the chance of one individual being placed in a given study arm is independent of the placement of others, and the only differences between the groups are those intended by the investigator (e.g., different drugs or therapy to be administered to each arm).

RANTES

A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotoxin that is stored in and released from platelets and activated T-cells.

Rate

Commonly used to indicate any measure of disease or outcome occurrence. In statistics, rates are those measures of disease occurrence that include time in the denominator (ex. incidence).

RCT

Randomized controlled trial.

RDS

Response driving sampling.

Reactivity

The capability of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction with the release of energy. Unwanted effects include: pressure build-up, temperature increase, and formation of harmful by-products. These effects may occur because of the reactivity of a substance to heat, an ignition source, or direct contact with other chemicals in use or in storage.

Reagents

Sources of biological or chemical material that can be used as the starting blocks in laboratory experiments. Reagents can range from chemicals needed to perform a particular chemical reaction, constituents of a laboratory protocol, or clones to be used in a large-scale gene expression study.

Recombinant

Produced by genetic engineering. Recombinant products are designated by a lower-case r (e.g., rHGH).

Recombinant DNA (rDNA)

Genetically engineered DNA molecules created by the fusion of DNA from different sources; the technology employed for splicing DNA from different sources and for amplifying the resultant heterogeneous DNA.

Rectum

The last part of the large intestine just above the anus.

Recurrent miscarriage

The loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies prior to 20 weeks from the last menstrual period.

Reflex

An action that is performed without conscious thought as a response to a stimulus.

Reflux

A backward or return flow of the stomach and duodenum contents into the esophagus.

Regimen

A drug or treatment combination and the way it is taken.

Regression

Improvement in a tumour.

Regurgitation

An act of regurgitating, especially: the backward flow of blood through a defective heart valve.

Relationship

A relationship is simply having a connection to another person. People have lots of different kinds of relationships involving friends, family, teachers, etc. As teenagers move through adolescence, romantic or sexual relationships become increasingly important.

Relationship

A relationship is simply having a connection to another person. People have lots of different kinds of relationships involving friends, family, teachers, etc. As teenagers move through adolescence, romantic or sexual relationships become increasingly important.

Relative Risk (RR)

A measure of the comparative risk of developing a disease or condition. Statistically, RR is the chance that a person receiving an exposure will develop a condition compared to the chance that a non-exposed person will develop the same condition. It can also mean a statement of the relative magnitude of disease risk in one group compared with another, usually derived from a comparison of incidence rates.

Relaxin

A hormone secreted by the corpus luteum that helps soften the cervix and relax the pelvic ligaments in pregnancy.

Remission

Partial recovery from an illness, an alternative word for regression.

Renal

Relating to the kidneys.

Renal

Relating to the kidneys.

Repeats (or repeat sequences)

Repeat sequences and approximate repeats occur throughout the DNA of higher organisms (mammals). Repeat sequences may also occur within genes, as mutations or alterations to those genes. Repetitive sequences, especially mobile elements, have many applications in genetic research.

Repetitive strain injury

A problem with the muscles, tendons or nerves that develops over time due to overuse. Examples of repetitive strain injuries include: carpal tunnel syndrome and tendonitis. A similar term is Cumulative trauma disorder.

Reporting bias

An assessment bias that occurs when individuals in one group are more likely to report past events than individuals in another of the study or control groups.

Reproductive hazards

Any material that can affect the development of sperm and egg cells. This can lead to an inability to have children, birth defects and other harmful changes in childhood or later in live.

Reproductive organs

Any organ involved in sexual reproduction.

Reproductive organs

Any organ involved in sexual reproduction.

Resistance

The capacity of a species or strain of microorganism to survive exposure to a toxic agent (e.g. a drug) that was previously effective, due to genetic mutation and selection for, and accumulation of, genes conferring protection from the agent. Resistance often develops as a result of overuse of the drug, which selectively destroys individual microorganisms lacking the protective genes.

Resistance Testing

Genotypic resistance tests determine what changes have taken place in HIV's structure that may alter the way it makes key proteins (e.g. protease and reverse transcriptase). These changes are called mutations. Phenotypic testing presents a more direct measure of resistance by examining the amount of drug needed to stop the replication of the virus, grown from a person's blood, in a laboratory setting.

Respect

Honoring someone, holding them in high regard or esteem, valuing them even if they are different from you.

Respect

Honoring someone, holding them in high regard or esteem, valuing them even if they are different from you.

Respiratory

Of, or relating to, respiration (a single complete act of breathing).

Response rate

The percentage of people who were asked to participate in the survey who actually participate.

Responsibility

A duty or task that you are required or expected to do. Something that you should do because it is morally right or legally required.

Responsibility

A duty or task that you are required or expected to do. Something that you should do because it is morally right or legally required.

Restrictions

A law or rule that limits or controls something.

Restrictions

A law or rule that limits or controls something.

Retained placenta

An incomplete separation of the placenta and its failure to be expelled from the body within 30 minutes of the baby's birth when the third stage of labor has been managed actively or 1 hour when a physiological third stage has been undertaken.

Reticulocyte

An immature red blood cell that appears especially during regeneration of lost blood and that has a fine basophilic reticulum formed from the remains of ribosomes

Retinitis

Damage to the retina, the light-sensitive surface at the back of the eye.

Retrospective Study

One based on the medical records of patients, looking backward in time at events that happened in the past. A retrospective cohort study uses the records of a specific group of patients.

Retroverted uterus

The uterus is tipped backwards so that it aims towards the rectum instead of forward towards the stomach.

Retrovir (AZT)

Azidothymidine - a reverse transcriptase inhibitor that prevents HIV from replicating (an ARV).

Retrovirus

A retrovirus, such as HIV, replicates using an enzyme (reverse transcriptase) to copy RNA into DNA prior to its integration into the host's genome. (Most viruses have DNA in their natural state and transcribe to RNA during replication.)

Retrovirus

A retrovirus, such as HIV, replicates using an enzyme (reverse transcriptase) to copy RNA into DNA prior to its integration into the host's genome. (Most viruses have DNA in their natural state and transcribe to RNA during replication.)

Retrovirus

A retrovirus, such as HIV, replicates using an enzyme (reverse transcriptase) to copy RNA into DNA prior to its integration into the host's genome. (Most viruses have DNA in their natural state and transcribe to RNA during replication.)

Rev

A gene of HIV; also the protein produced by the gene, which regulates the building of HIV's structural components and is necessary for the production of new virus particles.

Reverse Transcriptase (RT)

A viral enzyme that allows a retrovirus to translate its genetic material (in the form of RNA) into DNA, which is then integrated into the chromosomes of the host cell. A reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) blocks retroviral replication by interfering with the reverse transcriptase enzyme.

Reverse Transcriptase (RT)

A viral enzyme that allows a retrovirus to translate its genetic material (in the form of RNA) into DNA, which is then integrated into the chromosomes of the host cell. A reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) blocks retroviral replication by interfering with the reverse transcriptase enzyme.

Reverse Transcriptase (RT)

A viral enzyme that allows a retrovirus to translate its genetic material (in the form of RNA) into DNA, which is then integrated into the chromosomes of the host cell. A reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) blocks retroviral replication by interfering with the reverse transcriptase enzyme.

Rhesus (Rh) factor

A protein that is found on the surface of red blood cells. If the Rh factor protein is present on the cells, a person is described as Rh-positive. If there is no Rh factor protein, the person is considered to be Rh-negative. An Rh-negative woman carrying an Rh-positive fetus may produce antibodies that attack the fetus' blood.

Rhesus (Rh) incompatibility

Rh incompatibility is a condition that develops when a pregnant woman has Rh-negative blood and the baby in her womb has Rh-positive blood. The mother's immune system recognizes the foreign proteins on the baby's blood cells and attacks the cells.

Rhonchus

Whistling or snoring sound heard on auscultation of the chest when the air channels are partly obstructed.

Ribonuclease (RNase)

An enzyme that hydrolyzes (breaks down) RNA.

Ribonucleotide reductase

A viral enzyme which cuts ribonucleotides in order to create deoxyibonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.

Ribozyme

RNA with enzymatic activity that can break down (cleave) and piece together (splice) genetic material (DNA or RNA), thus modifying the genetic instructions it carries. Ribozymes (e.g., hairpin ribosome) are used as ""molecular scissors"" in genetic engineering.

Rights

A just claim or title, whether legal, prescriptive, or moral. Also, adherence or obedience to moral and legal principles and authority.

Rights

A just claim or title, whether legal, prescriptive, or moral. Also, adherence or obedience to moral and legal principles and authority.

Risk

The probability of an event occurring during a specified period of time. See also: absolute risk, relative risk (RR) and risk factor.

Risk

The probability of an event occurring during a specified period of time. See also: absolute risk, relative risk (RR) and risk factor.

Risk (related to work)

The likelihood of a harmful effect such as an accident or occupational disease occurring within a specified period or in specific circumstances such as during or after specified exposure. It may be expressed either as a frequency, such as the number of harmful effects in a certain time period, or as a probability, such as the probability of a harmful effect during or after exposure.

Risk assessment (related to work)

Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the frequency or probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations (e.g. related to exposure or activities at work) and is one of the first steps in risk management. See also Health risk assessment and Risk management.

Risk factor

A characteristic that is of value in predicting risk.

Risk factor

A characteristic that is of value in predicting risk.

Risk management (related to work)

All actions taken to achieve, maintain or improve work and working conditions so that harmful effects to individuals or populations related to exposure or activities at work will be prevented. See Risk and Risk assessment.

Risk Reduction

A form of counseling or strategies designed to assist individuals in reducing their exposure to HIV infection.

RNA

Ribonucleic acid, the form in which HIV stores its genetic material.

RNA

Ribonucleic acid, the form in which HIV stores its genetic material.

RNA

Ribonucleic acid, the form in which HIV stores its genetic material.

RNA polymerase

An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA from ribonucleoside-triphosphate precursors from a template DNA strand.

RNA polymerase

An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA from ribonucleoside-triphosphate precursors from a template DNA strand.

RNA polymerase

An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA from ribonucleoside-triphosphate precursors from a template DNA strand.

Robust

A statistical procedure is robust if its assumptions can be violated without substantial effects on its conclusions.

Role play

A method of participatory learning whereby two students act out a possible real-life situation and both take on one role in order to best practice how to behave oneself in such a situation. They act and speak as though they are the character they are portraying.

Role play

A method of participatory learning whereby two students act out a possible real-life situation and both take on one role in order to best practice how to behave oneself in such a situation. They act and speak as though they are the character they are portraying.

Rooting reflex

A reflex consisting of head-turning and sucking movements elicited in a normal infant by gently stroking the side of the mouth or cheek. This reflex helps the baby to learn to breastfeed.

Route of entry

The method by which a contaminant can enter the body. There are four main routes of entry. Contaminants can be breathed in, swallowed, absorbed through the skin, or injected into the bloodstream. See Ingestion and Inhalation.

Routine HIV testing

Another name for PITC. Approach to testing whereby the individual is offered an HIV test as a standard part of a treatment/health check. The individual is informed that he/she has the right to decide whether or not to undergo the test.

RT-PCR (or Reverse Transcriptase-PCR)

Procedure in which PCR amplification is carried out on DNA that is first generated by the conversion of mRNA to cDNA using reverse transcriptase.

RTV

Ritonavir

RTV

Ritonavir

RTV

Ritonavir

Rubella

German measles, a disease caused by a virus.

Rupture of membranes

A spontaneous rupture or bursting of the amniotic sac

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S

SAARC

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

Safe Sex

Sexual contact that does not involve any blood, semen, or vaginal fluids being passed between partners. This is usually achieved through the use of a condom.

Safe Sex

Sexual contact that does not involve any blood, semen, or vaginal fluids being passed between partners. This is usually achieved through the use of a condom.

Safety professional (or safety engineer)

A person whose basic job function and responsibility is to prevent accidents and other harmful exposures and the personal injury, disease or property damage that may ensue.

Salvage therapy

Any treatment regimen used after a number of earlier regimens have failed.

Sample

The people you select for data collection, that ideally should represent the entire group you are studying, the population.

Sample

This is a sample glossary item with term Sampe, lang English, course Test set small

Sampling

The process of taking small representative quantities of a gas, liquid, or solid for the purpose of analysis.

Sampling error

An error introduced by chance differences between the estimate obtained in a sample and the true value in the larger population from which the sample was drawn.

Schizoaffective

A condition in which a person experiences a combination of schizophrenia symptoms — such as hallucinations or delusions — and of mood disorder symptoms, such as mania or depression.

SCID Mouse

A mouse that lacks key immune system components. SCID mice are used as animal models in the study of transplantation and immune system disorders. SCID-hu mice have had their absent immune system replaced by human immune system components, allowing their use in the study of human immune disorders.

Scotomata

A spot in the visual field from which vision is absent or deficient.

Scrotum

The scrotum is the protective sac of skin and muscle that hangs under a man's penis and that contains the testicles, the epididymis and part of the spermatic cord.

Scrotum

The scrotum is the protective sac of skin and muscle that hangs under a man's penis and that contains the testicles, the epididymis and part of the spermatic cord.

Seborrhoeic dermatitis

A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin, characterised by dry, moist or greasy scaling, and yellow crusted patches.

Secondary

Second or inferior in order of time, place or importance; derived from or consequent to a primary event.

Secondary research

Secondary research makes use of existing data sources.

Self-esteem

The opinion you have about yourself. It is all about how much people value themselves, the pride they feel in themselves, and how worthwhile they feel. Your self-esteem has an effect on your behavior and the choices you make. Self-esteem is important because feeling good about yourself can affect how you act. A person who has high self-esteem will make friends easily, is more in control of his or her behavior, and will enjoy life more.

Self-esteem

The opinion you have about yourself. It is all about how much people value themselves, the pride they feel in themselves, and how worthwhile they feel. Your self-esteem has an effect on your behavior and the choices you make. Self-esteem is important because feeling good about yourself can affect how you act. A person who has high self-esteem will make friends easily, is more in control of his or her behavior, and will enjoy life more.

Semen

The sticky whitish liquid containing sperm that is produced by a male's sex organs.

Semen

The sticky whitish liquid containing sperm that is produced by a male's sex organs.

Seminal

Relating to, or consisting of seed or semen.

Sensitivity

The proportion of those with a disease/condition as measured by the gold standard who are positive by the test being studied.

Sensitizer

A substance which has the potency to activate (sensitize) the adaptive immune system upon exposure. Once sensitization has taken place, repeated exposure to even very low quantities of the substance is enough to cause a marked response in humans or animals, not necessarily limited to the contact site. Skin sensitization (for example to a metal such as nickel) is the most common form of sensitization in the workplace. Respiratory sensitization to various chemicals (for example isocyanates) and biological agents (for example rodent allergens) is also known to occur.

Sentinel

Being an individual or part of a population potentially susceptible to an infection or infestation that is being monitored for the appearance or recurrence of the causative pathogen or parasite.

Sentinel surveillance

Surveillance based on selected population samples chosen to represent particular groups e.g. women attending ANCs.

Sepsis

The presence of pus-forming bacteria in the body.

Sepsis

The presence of pus-forming bacteria in the body. Can lead to a fatal outcome if not treated in an adequate and timely manner.

Sero-conversion

The period when the blood starts producing detectable antibodies in response to HIV infection.

Sero-conversion

The period when the blood starts producing detectable antibodies in response to HIV infection.

Sero-conversion

The period when the blood starts producing detectable antibodies in response to HIV infection.

Sero-negative

Not having anti-HIV antibodies; being HIV negative.

Sero-negative

Not having anti-HIV antibodies; being HIV negative.

Sero-negative

Not having anti-HIV antibodies; being HIV negative.

Sero-positive

Having anti-HIV antibodies; being HIV positive.

Sero-positive

Having anti-HIV antibodies; being HIV positive.

Sero-positive

Having anti-HIV antibodies; being HIV positive.

Seroconversion

The development of antibodies against a microorganism; the change in a person's antibody status from negative to positive.

Seroconversion

The development of antibodies against a microorganism; the change in a person's antibody status from negative to positive.

Seroconversion

The development of antibodies against a microorganism; the change in a person's antibody status from negative to positive.

Seronegative

Negative antibody result in a blood test.

Seronegative

Negative antibody result in a blood test.

Seronegative

Negative antibody result in a blood test.

Seropositive

Having a blood test result which indicates infection with an organism (e.g., HIV). A test may detect either antibodies to an organism (antibody positive) or the organism or its proteins (antigen positive).

Seroprevalence

The rate of HIV-infected individuals in a given population as measured by blood antibody tests, that is, the number of infected individuals divided by the total number in the population.

Serous

Of, relating to, producing, or resembling serum.

Serum

Clear, non-cellular portion of the blood, containing antibodies and other proteins and chemicals.

Sex

Refers to the biological characteristics that define humans as male or female. In short, it is the biological difference between males and females as opposed to gender which are the social differences between men and women.

Sex

Refers to the biological characteristics that define humans as male or female. In short, it is the biological difference between males and females as opposed to gender which are the social differences between men and women.

Sexual Abuse

The forcing of unwanted sexual activity by one person on another by the use of threats or coercion.

Sexual Abuse

The forcing of unwanted sexual activity by one person on another by the use of threats or coercion.

Sexual harassment

Sexual harassment occurs when a person is subject to unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. Sexual harassment may include touching, feeling, groping and/or repeated unpleasant, degrading and/or sexist remarks directed towards a man or woman.

Sexual harassment

Sexual harassment occurs when a person is subject to unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. Sexual harassment may include touching, feeling, groping and/or repeated unpleasant, degrading and/or sexist remarks directed towards a man or woman.

Sexual intercourse

The act in which the external male reproductive organ'penis'enters the external/accessible female reproductive tract'vagina. 'Sex' encompasses a lot of different types of sexual activities. It means anything that involves sexual activity or gives you sexual pleasure in any way.

Sexual intercourse

The act in which the external male reproductive organ'penis'enters the external/accessible female reproductive tract'vagina. 'Sex' encompasses a lot of different types of sexual activities. It means anything that involves sexual activity or gives you sexual pleasure in any way.

Sexuality

Sexual habits and desires of a person.

Sexuality

Sexual habits and desires of a person.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Any disease transmitted by sexual contact; caused by microorganisms that survive on the skin or mucus membranes of the genital area; or transmitted via semen, vaginal secretions, or blood during intercourse. Because the genital areas provide a moist, warm environment that is especially conducive to the proliferation of bacteria, viruses, and yeasts, a great many diseases can be transmitted this way. They include AIDS, Chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, syphilis, and some forms of hepatitis. Also known as a morbus venereus or venereal disease. Abbreviated STD or STI. Also referred to as sexually transmitted infections.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Any disease transmitted by sexual contact; caused by microorganisms that survive on the skin or mucus membranes of the genital area; or transmitted via semen, vaginal secretions, or blood during intercourse. Because the genital areas provide a moist, warm environment that is especially conducive to the proliferation of bacteria, viruses, and yeasts, a great many diseases can be transmitted this way. They include AIDS, Chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, syphilis, and some forms of hepatitis. Also known as a morbus venereus or venereal disease. Abbreviated STD or STI. Also referred to as sexually transmitted infections.

Sexually transmitted infection (STI) or disease (STD)

Infection that is commonly transmitted through vaginal, oral or anal sex. The presence of an STI is indicative of risk behavior and also increases the risk of contracting HIV.

Sexually transmitted infection (STI) or disease (STD)

Infection that is commonly transmitted through vaginal, oral or anal sex. The presence of an STI is indicative of risk behavior and an increased risk of contracting HIV.

SGBV

Sexual and Gender Based Violence

Shared confidentiality

the release of a client’s sero-status information to others, e.g. healthcare professionals taking care of the client, with the consent of the client.

Shingles

Condition caused by a herpes virus infection, involving painful blisters on the skin.

Short-term exposure limit (STEL)

See Threshold limit values.

Shoulder dystocia

A vaginal cephalic delivery that requires additional obstetric manoeuvres to deliver the fetus after the head has delivered and gentle traction has failed.

Sigmoidoscopy

Examination of the rectum and lower bowel with a flexible viewing device.

Simian

Related to or affecting monkeys.

Single blind

A type of clinical trial in which the participants do not know what treatments they are getting, but their doctors do.

Singleton

A lone (one) fetus in the uterus.

Sinusitis

Inflammation or infection of the sinuses, which are cavities behind the forehead and cheekbones.

SJ

An autoimmune disorder characterized by dryness of the mucous membranes, enlarged salivary glands and facial lesions; the syndrome may also be associated with pancreatitis and kidney disease.

Skin notation

A notation sometimes used with Threshold Limit Value (TLV) or Time-Weighted Average Exposure Value (TWAEV) exposure data. It indicates that the substance may be absorbed by the skin, mucous membranes and eyes and thereby contribute to systemic effects. This additional exposure must be considered part of the total exposure to avoid exceeding the TLV or TWAEV for that substance. So air sampling alone is insufficient to quantify exposure accurately, and measures to prevent significant absorption by the skin may be required.

Slang

Words that are not considered part of the standard vocabulary of a language and that are used very informally in speech especially by a particular group of people.

Slang

Words that are not considered part of the standard vocabulary of a language and that are used very informally in speech especially by a particular group of people.

Social Institutions

Social institutions are human organizations; social institutions and their social interactions. Social institutions are established or standardized patterns of rule-governed behavior. Social institutions include: religions, family-marriage, economic institutions, education, health care (hospitals) and the government (politics).

Social Institutions

Social institutions are human organizations; social institutions and their social interactions. Social institutions are established or standardized patterns of rule-governed behavior. Social institutions include: religions, family-marriage, economic institutions, education, health care (hospitals) and the government (politics).

Solvent

A substance that dissolves other substances. Many solvents are flammable.

Somatic pain

Pain involving skin, soft tissue, muscle and bone.

Specific Immunity

Immunity directed against specific antigens; TH1 is cellular and TH2 is humoral (antibody-based) immunity.

Specific Rate

An expression of the observed number of health events within a defined subgroup or stratum of the population at risk, within a defined time period (e.g., age-specific death rate of 1.2 deaths per 1,000 persons aged 10-10).

Specificity

The proportion of those without a disease/condition (as measured by the gold standard) who are negative by the test being studied.

Speculum

An instrument for enlarging the opening of any canal or cavity in order to inspect its interior, e.g. vagina, rectum, ear or nose.

Sperm

A cell produced by the male sexual organs and that combines with the female's egg in reproduction, surrounded by sticky white fluid (semen).

Sperm

A cell produced by the male sexual organs and that combines with the female's egg in reproduction, surrounded by sticky white fluid (semen).

Spermicides

Spermicides are chemical agents that are inserted into the vagina and prevent sperm from traveling up into the cervix.

Spermicides

Spermicides are chemical agents that are inserted into the vagina and prevent sperm from traveling up into the cervix.

Spike

A protein protrusion on the envelope of a virus; HIV spikes are composed of the glycoprotein gp120.

Spleen

Organ which produces white blood cells and acts as a reservoir for red blood cells.

Splenomegaly

Enlarged spleen.

Spotting

Light bleeding from the vagina. Similar to a period, but much lighter. The color of the blood can be anything from red to brown.

Sputum smear

A diagnostic test in which a sample of spit is examined under the microscope for the presence of micro-organisms.

Sputum smear

A diagnostic test in which a sample of spit is examined under the microscope for the presence of micro-organisms.

Sputum smear

A diagnostic test in which a sample of spit is examined under the microscope for the presence of micro-organisms.

Sputum Stain (or Sputum Smear)

A diagnostic test (e.g., for tuberculosis) that uses mucus from the bronchial tubes.

Squamous Cell

A flat, thin cell that comprises the surface of the skin and the linings of the esophagus, vagina, and rectum.

Squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL)

Cancerous growth within the cells lining the cervix. Untreated, it can lead to invasive cancer of the cervix.

Standard

A guideline, rule, principle, or model that is used as a means to compare, measure or judge performance, quality, quantity, etc.

Standard Deviation

A statistical measure of variance. Ninety-five percent of a range of values lie within 2 standard deviations of a mean value.

Standard Deviation

A statistical measure of variance. Ninety-five percent of a range of values lie within 2 standard deviations of a mean value.

Static electricity

An electrical charge that cannot move. This charge will eventually develop enough energy to jump as a spark to a nearby grounded or less highly charged object. If sparks occur in an ignitable vapor or dust mixture, it can cause an explosion or fire.

Station

The relationship of the presenting part during labor to pubic bone and the ischial spines in the pelvis; the score ranges from -5 to +5.

Statistical significance

The probability that an observed outcome of an experiment or trial is due to chance alone. Implies that the observed result was unlikely to have occurred by chance alone; usually based on a P value less than 0.05 (that is, a less than 5% probability that the difference observed would occur by chance alone).

Statistical significance

The probability that an observed outcome of an experiment or trial is due to chance alone. Implies that the observed result was unlikely to have occurred by chance alone; usually based on a p value less than 0.05 (that is, a less than 5% probability that the difference observed would occur by chance alone).

STD

Sexual transmitted disease: infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites and viruses.

STD

Sexual transmitted disease: infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites and viruses.

STD

Sexual transmitted disease: infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites and viruses.

STD

Sexual transmitted disease: infections that can be contracted (acquired) from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites and viruses.

STD/STI

Sexually transmitted disease/infection.

Sterilization

A permanent method of preventing pregnancy for men or women. It is often used when the person has decided he or she does not want any children or any more children. For women, it involves an operation to cut or seal the fallopian tubes (called tubal ligation). For men, it involves a procedure (called a vasectomy) to cut or block the tubes carrying sperm from the testes to the penis.

Sterilization

A permanent method of preventing pregnancy for men or women. It is often used when the person has decided he or she does not want any children or any more children. For women, it involves an operation to cut or seal the fallopian tubes (called tubal ligation). For men, it involves a procedure (called a vasectomy) to cut or block the tubes carrying sperm from the testes to the penis.

Steroids

Drugs used to damp down excessive immune responses.

Steroids

Drugs used to damp down excessive immune responses.

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

An unusual, severe reaction characterized by blistering and sloughing of the mucous membranes; the visceral organs may also be involved, and the condition can be fatal. The syndrome may result from the use of certain medications such as TMP-SMX.

STI syndromic management

A cost-effective approach that allows health workers to diagnose STIs on the basis of a patient’s history and symptoms, without the need for laboratory analysis. Treatment normally includes the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

STI syndromic management

A cost-effective approach that allows health workers to diagnose STIs on the basis of a patient's history and symptoms, without the need for laboratory analysis. Treatment normally includes the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

Stigmatization

To characterize or brand someone or something as disgraceful or shameful.

Stigmatization

To characterize or brand someone or something as disgraceful or shameful.

Stillbirth

WHO definition: a baby born with no signs of life at or after 28 weeks' gestation. The gestational age varies between countries.

STIs

Sexually Transmitted Infections i.e. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites and viruses.

STIs

Sexually Transmitted Infections i.e. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites and viruses.

STIs

Sexually Transmitted Infections i.e. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites and viruses.

Strain

A variant characterised by a specific genotype.

Stress at work

Subjective feelings and physiological responses that result from the psychosocial work environment and put an individual in a position of being unable to cope or respond appropriately to demands being made upon him or her. Physiological responses that characterize stress can also arouse to the physical environment. See also Psychosocial work environment.

Stressor at work

A condition or circumstance in a workplace (or other setting) that elicits a stress response from workers. See also Psychosocial work environment.

Subcutaneous

Beneath or introduced beneath the skin, e.g. a subcutaneous injection is an injection beneath the skin.

Subcutaneous

Beneath or introduced beneath the skin, e.g. a subcutaneous injection is an injection beneath the skin.

Subgroup Analysis

The selection of a smaller group (e.g., based on demographic characteristics, clinical status) out of a larger study for further analysis.

Sublingual

Located beneath the tongue.

Subset

A set contained within another set.

Substitution

The replacement of toxic or hazardous materials, equipment or processes with those that are less harmful.

Substrate

Binds with the enzyme?s active site and forms an enzyme - substrate complex.

Subtype

Different strains of HIV which can be grouped according to their genes. HIV-1 is classified into three 'groups,' M, N, and O. Most HIV-1 is in group M which is further divided into subtypes, A, B, C and D etc. Subtype B is the most common subtype in the UK, Europe and North America, whilst A, C and D are most important worldwide.

Suckling

A baby breastfeeding.

Superinfection

When somebody already infected with HIV is exposed to a different strain of HIV and becomes infected with it, in addition to their exisitng virus.

Surrogate Marker

An indicator that can serve in place of a clinical endpoint such as such as the disease progression or death. Surrogate markers for HIV disease may be virologic (viral load), immunologic (CD4 cell count) or clinical (weight loss). In HIV testing, the presence of HIV antibodies is a surrogate marker indicating infection.

Surveillance

Surveillance is the ongoing and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data and the appropriate dissemination of such data.

Surveillance of the workers’ health

See Workers' health surveillance.

Surveillance of the working environment

Surveillance of the working environment is a generic term which includes the identification and evaluation of environmental factors which may affect workers' health. It covers assessments of sanitary and occupational hygiene conditions, factors in the organization of work which may pose risks to the health of workers, collective and personal protective equipment, exposure of workers to hazardous agents and control systems designed to eliminate and reduce them. From the standpoint of workers' health, the surveillance of the working environment may focus on, but not be limited to, ergonomics, accident and disease prevention, occupational hygiene in the workplace, work organization, and psychosocial factors in the workplace.

Survey

A survey is a method of collecting data with questionnaires.

Susceptible

Vulnerable to or potentially able to contract a disease; also refers to a microorganism that is vulnerable to the effects of a drug.

Suture

The spaces between the bones in the baby's head.

Symphysis pubis

A secondary cartilaginous joint located between the left and right pubic bones near the midline of the body above any external genitalia and in front of the bladder.

Symptom

A condition that results from or accompanies an illness or disease.

Symptom

A condition that results from or accompanies an illness or disease.

Symptomatic

Having symptoms.

Symptomatic

Having symptoms.

Syncytia

Plaques or clumps of cells (usually dead) that have been infected with a foreign agent or virus such as HIV.

Syncytium (or Syncytia)

A mass or clump of cells that fuse together to form a ""giant cell."" In HIV infection syncytium formation may lead to direct cell-to-cell infection. Strains of HIV are classified as either syncytium-inducing (SI) or non-syncytium-inducing (NSI). SI strains tend to infect T-cells, whereas NSI strains tend to infect macrophages.

Syndrome

A group of symptoms and diseases that together are characteristic of a specific condition.

Synergy

An interaction between agents (e.g., drugs) that produces an effect greater than the combined effects of the same agents used separately.

Syphilis

A sexually transmitted infection that is caused by bacteria and results in chancres or painless sores in the genital area. Often syphilis starts as a single, hard, small sore in the mouth, penis, vagina or anus, which will ulcerate and grow until it is 1-2 cm in size. This is called first stage syphilis. People who have syphilis also have a higher chance of acquiring HIV infection. Syphilis is a bacterial infection, and so it can be cured with antibiotics. The first stage of syphilis is treated relatively easily. However, cases of second and third stage syphilis are much more difficult to treat.

Syphilis

A sexually transmitted infection that is caused by bacteria and results in chancres or painless sores in the genital area. Often syphilis starts as a single, hard, small sore in the mouth, penis, vagina or anus, which will ulcerate and grow until it is 1-2 cm in size. This is called first stage syphilis. People who have syphilis also have a higher chance of acquiring HIV infection. Syphilis is a bacterial infection, and so it can be cured with antibiotics. The first stage of syphilis is treated relatively easily. However, cases of second and third stage syphilis are much more difficult to treat.

Syphilis

A sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by bacteria known as Treponema pallidum.

Syringe

A device used to inject fluids into or withdraw them from something (e.g, the body or its cavities).

Systematic review

A literature review of a single issue or question that attempts to identify, select and synthesize all high quality research evidence relevant to that question. Systematic reviews of, among others, high-quality randomized controlled trials are considered to be basic elements for evidence-based medicine.

Systemic

Acting throughout the body rather than locally.

Systolic blood pressure

When the heart beats, it contracts and pushes blood through the arteries to the rest of the body. This force creates pressure on the arteries. This is called systolic blood pressure. A normal systolic blood pressure is 120 or less mmHg. It is written as the top number i.e. 120/80.

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T

T-Cell (or T-Lymphocyte)

A white blood cell derived from the thymus that contributes to the cell-mediated immune response. There are 3 major types of T-cells: T-helper (CD4 cells), T-suppressor (CD8 cells), and T-killer (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes or CTL).

T-Cell (or T-Lymphocyte)

A white blood cell derived from the thymus that contributes to the cell-mediated immune response. There are 3 major types of T-cells: T-helper (CD4 cells), T-suppressor (CD8 cells), and T-killer (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes or CTL).

T-Cell (or T-Lymphocyte)

A white blood cell derived from the thymus that contributes to the cell-mediated immune response. There are 3 major types of T-cells: T-helper (CD4 cells), T-suppressor (CD8 cells), and T-killer (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes or CTL).

T-cell receptor

A structure made up of several proteins located on the surface of T-cells. The receptor recognizes antigens bound to major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules and triggers various cellular functions important to immune responses.

T-cell receptor

A structure made up of several proteins located on the surface of T-cells. The receptor recognizes antigens bound to major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules and triggers various cellular functions important to immune responses.

T-cell receptor

A structure made up of several proteins located on the surface of T-cells. The receptor recognizes antigens bound to major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules and triggers various cellular functions important to immune responses.

T-helper cells

T cells that alert the immune system to produce cytotoxic T lymphocytes against a specific infection.

T-helper cells

T cells that alert the immune system to produce cytotoxic T lymphocytes against a specific infection.

T-helper cells

T cells that alert the immune system to produce cytotoxic T lymphocytes against a specific infection.

Tachypnea

Increased rate of respiration.

TAM

Thymidine Analog Mutations

Target population

The group of individuals to whom one wishes to apply or extrapolate the results of an investigation. The target population may be, and often is, different from the population from which the sample in an investigation is drawn.

Task

A set of related steps that make up a discrete part of a job. Every job is made up of a collection of tasks. For example, answering a phone or entering data into a computer are tasks of a secretary’s job.

Task analysis

A technique used to identify, evaluate, and control health and safety hazards linked to particular tasks. A task analysis systematically breaks tasks down into their basic components. This allows each step of the process to be thoroughly evaluated. Also known as job task analysis.

Tat (or transactivator of transcription)

A gene of HIV that plays a role in viral replication by regulating the transcription of viral DNA into RNA; also the protein produced by that gene. A tat inhibitor is a drug that inhibits HIV replication by interfering with the tat protein.

TB

Tuberculosis.

TB

Tuberculosis.

TB

Tuberculosis.

TC-NAC

Technical Committee of the National AIDS Committee

Teenage Pregnancy

Defined as pregnancy that occurs in women below the age of 20. Teenage pregnancy rates vary from one country to another depending on factors such as access to contraceptive methods, sex education and sexual activity.

Teenage Pregnancy

Defined as pregnancy that occurs in women below the age of 20. Teenage pregnancy rates vary from one country to another depending on factors such as access to contraceptive methods, sex education and sexual activity.

Teenager

A young person who falls between the range of 13-19 years old. They are called teenagers because their age number ends in 'teen'.

Teenager

A young person who falls between the range of 13-19 years old. They are called teenagers because their age number ends in 'teen'.

Telomerase

The enzyme responsible for catalyzing the addition of repeat sequences at the ends of chromosomes (telomeres) during each round of cell division.

Telomere

A complex of repetitive DNA sequences that cap the ends of chromosomes. Telomeres play a role in cellular replication via the telomerase enzyme, which helps determine whether cells are able to replicate. Telomeres shorten each time a cell divides, and signal cell senescence (loss of function) when they reach a critical length.

TEN

Toxic epidermal necrolysis: a life-threatening dermatological condition that is frequently induced by a reaction to drugs. It is characterized by the detachment of the top layer of skin (the epidermis) from the lower layers of the skin (the dermis) all over the body.

Teratogen

An agent that causes birth defects by harming the unborn child. See also Embryotoxin.

Teratogenic

Causing physical defects in the foetus.

Termination

Induced termination of a pregnancy with destruction of the embryo or fetus, normally before the fetus is capable of independent life.

Test and treat strategy

Effective treatment of HIV infected individuals may reduce their ability to infect their sexual partners, thus preventing onward transmission of the virus.

Testes

The pair of male reproductive glands enclosed in the scrotum that produce the male sex hormone testosterone and the spermatozoa. The singular form is testis.

Testes

The pair of male reproductive glands enclosed in the scrotum that produce the male sex hormone testosterone and the spermatozoa. The singular form is testis.

Testosterone

A ""male hormone"" -- a sex hormone produced by the testes that encourages the development of male sexual characteristics, stimulates the activity of the male secondary sex characteristics, and prevents changes in them following castration.

Testosterone

A ""male hormone"" -- a sex hormone produced by the testes that encourages the development of male sexual characteristics, stimulates the activity of the male secondary sex characteristics, and prevents changes in them following castration.

Therapeutic Vaccine

A vaccine given after infection to reduce or arrest disease progression.

Threatened miscarriage (or abortion)

A condition that suggests a miscarriage might take place before the 20th week of pregnancy.

Threshold Limit Values

The airborne concentrations of a biological, chemical, or physical agent to which, it is believed. nearly all workers may be exposed without experiencing any harmful effects. Because of individual susceptibility or through aggravation of a pre-existing condition, a small percentage of workers may experience discomfort or will even develop an occupational or work-related disease from exposure at concentrations or levels below the threshold limit value. TLV is a reserved term of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and does certainly not represent a legal term. The term is, however, often used in occupational health as a more generic term for limit values. A number of specifications are important: 1. TLV-TWA (time weighted exposure limit) is presented as a time weighted average (TWA) exposure value, that is the time weighted average concentration or levels of a chemical or biological agent for an 8-hour day or a 40-hour week to which, it is believed, nearly all workers may be exposed, day after day, without experiencing harmful effects. 2. TLV-STEL (short-term exposure limit) presenting a short-term exposure value as the maximum airborne concentration of a chemical, biological or physical agent to which workers may be exposed provided that the exposure is for not more than 15 minutes and is not more often than four times in a work day. 3. TLV-C (ceiling exposure limit) presenting the maximum exposure to an airborne concentration of a chemical, biological or physical agent that should not be exceeded at any time.

Thrombocytopenia

A decreased number of specific cells in the blood responsible for blood clotting.

Thrombophlebitis

Inflammation of a vein with formation of a thrombus (a clot of blood remaining attached to its place of origin).

Thrush

A fungal infection of the mouth, throat or genitals, marked by white patches. Also called candidiasis.

Thymic Factor

A hormone or cytokine (e.g., thymodulin, thymopentin, thymostimulin) produced by the thymus gland that is involved in the regulation of immune function.

Thymidine Kinase

An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups and is necessary for the transformation and metabolism of nucleoside analog drugs.

Thymine (T)

One of the pyrimidine nucleic acid bases that make up nucleotides and pairs with adenine.

Thymus

A gland in the chest where T cells produced in the bone marrow mature into effective immune system components.

Tid

Abbreviation of a Latin term meaning three times a day.

Tiebreaker

A third HIV serological test that is used if the first two tests gave opposite results

Tier

A row, rank, or layer of articles; especially : one of two or more rows, levels, or ranks arranged one above another.

Time weighted average (TWA)

See Threshold limit values.

Titer (or Titre)

A standard measure of the strength or concentration of a component per volume of a solution. A laboratory measurement of the amount, or concentration, of a given component in solution.

Tiw

Abbreviation of a Latin term meaning three times a week.

TLS

Time location sampling: a statistical technique.

Tonsils

Two oval lymph node-like structures situated where the mouth joins the throat.

Topical

Applied directly to the affected area, as opposed to systemic.

Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)

A skin disorder characterized by widespread erythema and the formation of flaccid bullae (non-firm large vesicles or blisters) and later by skin that is scalded in appearance and separates from the body in large sheets.

Toxicity

The extent or ways in which a drug is poisonous to the body.

Toxicity

The extent or ways in which a drug is poisonous to the body.

Toxin

A poisonous substance.

Toxin

A poisonous substance.

Toxoplasmosis

An inflammation of the brain caused by the microscopic protozoan parasite, toxoplasma gondii. It may also involve the heart, lung, adrenal glands, pancreas and testicles. This disease is usually mild but it can cause fever, lymphadenopathy, malaise, and muscle pains, as well as severe headaches.Exposure is usually from cat feces and undercooked meat.

Toxoplasmosis

An inflammation of the brain caused by the microscopic protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The infection may also involve the heart, lung, adrenal glands, pancreas and testicles. The disease is usually mild but it can cause fever, lymphadenopathy, malaise, and muscle pains, as well as severe headaches. Exposure is usually from cat feces and undercooked meat.

Trace Element

A substance needed in very small amounts for the proper functioning of the body. There are 7 known trace elements: chromium, copper, cobalt, iodine, iron, selenium and zinc.

Transactivation

When one gene product causes a different gene to be activated.

Transactivator of Transcription (TAT)

An HIV gene that plays a role in viral replication by regulating the transcription of viral DNA into RNA; also the protein produced by that gene. A tat inhibitor is a drug that inhibits HIV replication by interfering with the tat protein.

Transaminase (or aminotransferase)

An enzyme e.g., SGOT (AST) or SGPT (ALT) produced by the liver that catalyzes the transfer of amino acids from one compound to another. Abnormally high levels in the blood indicate liver disease or damage (e.g., hepatitis, drug-related liver toxicity).

Transaminitis

The presence of elevated transaminases, commonly the transaminases alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), may be an indicator of liver damage.

Transcription

Transcription is the first step in protein synthesis and replication. Genetic information encoded in DNA is copied to messenger RNA, which is used as a template for the production of new proteins.

Transduction

The introduction of a transferred gene into a cell via genetic engineering techniques (e.g., a virus vector, liposomes).

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

A small RNA molecule that recognizes a specific amino acid, transports it to a specific codon in the mRNA, and positions it properly in the nascent polypeptide chain.

Transitional stage

The stage at the end of the 1st stage of the labor from 8-10 cms cervical dilation. Transition precedes the 2nd stage (pushing).

Translation

The conversion of an mRNA transcript (see transcription) into a protein molecule by the cellular protein synthesis machinery. Translation occurs at a site called the ribosome, which allows the information within the mRNA to be converted into a polypeptide chain. The code is read, three bases at a time, by a series of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which recognize the mRNA message and align the appropriate amino acid in place. Juxtaposed tRNAs, reading adjacent codes, bring together amino acids, which are then covalently joined together. This process continues until the polypeptide chain is complete; the chain is then released and folds into a functional protein.

Transverse

Unborn baby lying crossways in the uterus

Trial of labor

Attempting labor after having a prior cesarean in the hope of having a vaginal birth instead of another cesarean section. Normally undertaken with medical supervision.

Triangulation

Using at least two different research methods in one study to strengthen the validity and credibility of your research.

Trichomoniasis (parasitic)

Trichomoniasis is caused by a parasite called Trichomoniasis vaginalis. This parasite can live in the urogenital tract of males and females and infect any sexually active person, especially those who are not using protection or who have multiple partners. Symptoms of trichomoniasis can appear as early as 5 days after sex with an infected partner. However, trichomoniasis often goes undiagnosed because symptoms may not appear until later, if at all. An infection can be physically uncomfortable and can make someone who has it more susceptible to HIV infection. Trichomoniasis is a bacterial infection and so it can be cured with antibiotics.

Trichomoniasis (parasitic)

Trichomoniasis is caused by a parasite called Trichomoniasis vaginalis. This parasite can live in the urogenital tract of males and females and infect any sexually active person, especially those who are not using protection or who have multiple partners. Symptoms of trichomoniasis can appear as early as 5 days after sex with an infected partner. However, trichomoniasis often goes undiagnosed because symptoms may not appear until later, if at all. An infection can be physically uncomfortable and can make someone who has it more susceptible to HIV infection. Trichomoniasis is a bacterial infection and so it can be cured with antibiotics.

Triglycerides

The basic 'building blocks' from which fats are formed.

Trimer

A polymer formed from three molecules of a monomer.

Trimester

One of the three periods of approximately 3 months into which pregnancy is divided. That also marks different stages of fetal development.

Tropism

The affinity of a virus for a particular cell type. Tropism is usually determined by the presence of cell receptors on specific cells which allow a virus to enter that and only that particular cell type.

Trough Level

The lowest concentration of a drug reached in the body between dosages.

True-negative

An individual who does not have a disease or condition (as measured by the gold standard) and has a negative test result.

True-positive

An individual who has a disease or condition (as measured by the gold standard) and has a positive test result.

Tuberculomata

A large solitary caseous tubercle of tuberculous character occurring especially in the brain.

Tuberculosis (TB)

A disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis (TB)

A disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis (TB)

A disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Tumor

Growth of tissues that perform no useful function.

Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)

A proinflammatory cytokine produced by white blood cells (activated monocytes and macrophages). TNF can destroy tumors (antineoplastic effect), but also causes inflammation. When chronically elevated (as may occur in HIV disease), TNF-alpha may lead to fever, anorexia, hypermetabolism, and wasting and may block the production of enzymes that digest fats, leading to the breakdown of muscle tissue.

Tumour

Growth of tissues that perform no useful function.

Twins, dizygous

Fraternal twins resulting from separate fertilized ova.

Twins, monozygous, Identical

Two or more infants in a pregnancy that developed from a single fertilized ovum.

Type I Error

An error that occurs when data demonstrate statistically significant result when no true association or difference exists in the population. The alpha level is the size of the Type I error which will be tolerated--usually 5%.

Type II Error

An error that occurs when sample observations fail to demonstrate statistical significance when a true association or difference actually exists in the larger population(s).

Tyrosine Kinase

Enzyme that promotes various cellular processes by attaching phosphates to other molecules.

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U

Ubiquitous

Existing or being everywhere at the same time (widespread).

Ulcer

A break in the skin or mucous membrane which involves the loss of the surface tissue.

Ulceration

The process or fact of being eroded away, as by an ulcer.

Ultrasound, US, ultrasound scan

An examination of an unborn baby using sound waves.

Umbilical cord

The flexible cord that attaches an embryo or fetus to the placenta. The umbilical cord contains blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the fetus and remove its waste materials, including carbon dioxide.

UN

United Nations

UNAIDS

The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS.

UNAIDS

The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS.

Understanding

To have knowledge of another person and their feelings, wants, and needs. To have the compassion needed to put oneself in someone else's shoes and see things from their perspective.

Understanding

To have knowledge of another person and their feelings, wants, and needs. To have the compassion needed to put oneself in someone else's shoes and see things from their perspective.

Undetectable viral load

A level of viral load that is too low to be measured by the particular viral load test being used.

UNGASS

United Nations General Assembly Special Session

UNHCR

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Univariate Analysis

A statistical analysis that considers only one factor or variable at a time.

UNRWA

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East

Up regulation

An increase in the rate at which a process occurs or a substance is released. Up regulation results from an increase in the number of receptors for a chemical or drug on the cell surface, so that cells are more receptive to the effects of the agent.

Upper motor neurons

Motoneurons in the brain.

Uracil (U)

One of the pyrimidine nucleic acid bases that make up nucleotides. Uracil takes the place of thymine (T) in RNA and pairs with adenine for the base pair in RNA.

Urethra

A tube with a hole at the end of the penis. This is where urine passes through. It is closed to urine during ejaculation.

Urethra

A tube with a hole at the end of the penis. This is where urine passes through. It is closed to urine during ejaculation.

Urge to push

The natural impulse felt by a laboring woman toward the end of the first stage of labor to bear down and push.

Urinalysis

The analysis of urine by physical, chemical, and microscopical means to test for the presence of disease, drugs, etc.

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

An infection in any part of the urinary system --the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract --the bladder and the urethra.

URTI

Upper Respiratory Infection.

Uterine inversion

A rare complication of childbirth in which the uterus literally turns inside out after the baby is delivered. When this happens, the top of the uterus (the fundus) comes through the cervix or even completely outside the vagina.

Uterine involution

The process of reduction of the uterus to its normal non-pregnant size and state following childbirth.

Uterine rupture

A rare condition in which the uterine muscles are torn apart, with or without the expulsion of the fetus, by the stresses of unrelieved obstructed labor, the parting of an old cesarean delivery scar, or aggressive induction or augmentation of labor.

Uterine size

Size of uterus.

Uterus

The uterus is the internal hollow organ in the female reproductive system that holds a fetus during pregnancy. Also known as the 'womb'.

Uterus

The uterus is the internal hollow organ in the female reproductive system that holds a fetus during pregnancy. Also known as the 'womb'.

Uterus

Hollow muscular organ in which the baby grows.

Uterus, womb

The hollow pear shaped muscular organ in which the fetus grows, also known as the womb.

Uveitis

Inflammation of the middle layer of the eye.

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V

V3 Loop

Part of the gp120 envelope protein of HIV-1. The V3 loop is believed to trigger a strong antibody response and is the basis of several candidate anti-HIV vaccines.

Vaccine

A substance that contains antigenic components from an infectious organism. By stimulating an immune response (but not disease), it protects against subsequent infection by that organism, or may direct an immune response against an established infection or cancer.

Vaccine

A substance that contains antigenic components from an infectious organism. By stimulating an immune response (but not disease), it protects against subsequent infection by that organism, or may direct an immune response against an established infection or cancer.

Vacuum extraction/ Ventouse

A procedure used as an alternative to forceps to help the fetus from the birth canal during delivery. A plastic/ metal cup is applied to the baby's head, and with gentle suction, the baby is eased out of the birth canal.

Vagina

A vagina is an opening in a woman's body that goes back to her uterus. In sex, the man's penis goes into the vagina. In birth, the baby comes out of the vagina. That makes vaginas pretty crucial to life. Without a vagina, there'd be no babies in the womb, and even if there were, they'd have no way to get out of the womb and be born. The lower part of the female reproductive tract; a moist canal in female mammals extending from the labia minora to the uterus.

Vagina

A vagina is an opening in a woman's body that goes back to her uterus. In sex, the man's penis goes into the vagina. In birth, the baby comes out of the vagina. That makes vaginas pretty crucial to life. Without a vagina, there'd be no babies in the womb, and even if there were, they'd have no way to get out of the womb and be born. The lower part of the female reproductive tract; a moist canal in female mammals extending from the labia minora to the uterus.

Vagina

The canal in the female that extends from the external genitalia (vulva) to the cervix uteri. The adult vagina is normally about 8 cm long.

Vaginal birth after cesarean, VBAC

Vaginal birth that occurs following a previous cesarean section.

Vaginal examination, VE

Vaginal examinations, internal check of mother or woman.

Vaginal Sex

Also known as 'vaginal intercourse' occurs when a man's penis enters a woman's vagina. It is the only form of sex that can lead to pregnancy and it can also spread STDs.

Vaginal Sex

Also known as 'vaginal intercourse' occurs when a man's penis enters a woman's vagina. It is the only form of sex that can lead to pregnancy and it can also spread STDs.

Vaginitis

An inflammation of the vagina that can result in discharge, itching and pain. The cause is usually a change in the normal balance of vaginal bacteria or an infection.

Van der Waals Bonds

Weak interactions that play a role in holding together a protein structure.

Variable

A variable can be described as anything that has the quantity or quality to vary. Constructs and concepts are the phenomena that you are studying, and variables are the ways that you measure them in your study.

Vasculitis

Inflammation of a vessel

Vasculopathy

Disease of the (blood) vessels.

VCT

Voluntary HIV testing and Counseling for HIV usually involves one counseling sessions prior to taking an HIV test known as ""pre-test counseling"" and one following the HIV test when the results are given, often referred to as ""post-test counseling"". Counseling focuses on the infection (HIV), the disease (AIDS), the test, and positive behavior change.

VCT

Voluntary HIV testing and Counseling for HIV usually involves one counseling sessions prior to taking an HIV test known as ""pre-test counseling"" and one following the HIV test when the results are given, often referred to as ""post-test counseling"". Counseling focuses on the infection (HIV), the disease (AIDS), the test, and positive behavior change.

VCT

Voluntary HIV testing and Counseling for HIV usually involves one counseling sessions prior to taking an HIV test known as ""pre-test counseling"" and one following the HIV test when the results are given, often referred to as ""post-test counseling"". Counseling focuses on the infection (HIV), the disease (AIDS), the test, and positive behavior change.

VDRL Test

Venereal Disease Research Laboratories blood test for syphilis.

Vector

An agent used as a vehicle for transfer. A disease vector is an agent that transfers a pathogen from one organism to another (e.g., an insect). A viral vector is an engineered virus used to introduce genes into cells, or a live virus used as an antigen delivery vehicle in a vaccine.

Vector

An agent used as a vehicle for transfer. A disease vector is an agent that transfers a pathogen from one organism to another (e.g., an insect). A viral vector is an engineered virus used to introduce genes into cells, or a live virus used as an antigen delivery vehicle in a vaccine.

Ventilation

The supplying and exhausting of air at the same time to an enclosed machine, room, or an entire building. There are two types of ventilation: 1. General or Dilution: The air contaminants are diluted by natural or mechanical air exchange in the plant or in the specific workplace. This method is not appropriate for highly toxic contaminants. 2. Local Exhaust: The contaminant is captured at its source and removed before dilution in the workplace air can occur, usually by the use of hoods, ducts or vents located near or directly over the source. This is the preferred method for work places, where toxic contaminants are released and there is the potential for worker exposure. The effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation is dependent on an appropriate design and an adequate use adapted to local conditions.

Vernix caseosa

A white, cheesy substance that covers and protects the skin of a fetus. It is often all over the skin of a baby at birth. Vernix is composed of sebum (skin oil) and cells that have sloughed off the skin of the fetus.

Vertex, Vx

Unborn baby lying head down in uterus.

Vertical Transmission

Transmission from mother to child in utero (in the womb), intrapartum (during delivery), or postpartum (via breast-feeding).

Vertical Transmission

Transmission from mother to child in utero (in the womb), intrapartum (during delivery), or postpartum (via breastfeeding).

Very low birth weight baby

Babies weighing less than 1500 g at birth.

Viable pregnancy

A pregnancy is said to be viable when there are no signs of miscarriage or impending pregnancy loss and the expectation that the pregnancy will result in a birth of a live infant.

Vibration

Vibration is oscillatory motion that is alternately greater and less than some average value. It is defined by frequency and magnitude. Exposure to high levels of mechanical vibration at work can lead to hand-arm vibration syndrome or affect the whole body.

VIF (or Viral Inhibitory Factor)

A gene of HIV; also the protein produced by that gene. DNA sequences form the coding region for the virion infectivity factor (VIF) protein that is critical for generating infectious virions in HIV.

Viraemia

The presence of virus in the blood.

Viraemia

The presence of virus in the blood.

Viraemia

The presence of virus in the blood.

Viral Core

Within the envelope of a mature HIV particle is a bullet-shaped core or capsid, made of 2000 copies of another viral protein, p24. The capsid surrounds two single strands of HIV RNA, each of which has a copy of the virus's nine genes. Three of these, gag, pol and env, contain information needed to make structural proteins for new virus particles. The env gene, for example, codes for a protein called gp160 that is broken down by a viral enzyme to form gp120 and gp41, the components of Env.

Viral Envelope

HIV has a diameter of 1/10,000 of a millimetre and is spherical in shape. The outer coat of the virus, known as the viral envelope, is composed of two layers of fatty molecules called lipids, taken from the membrane of a human cell when a newly formed virus particle buds from the cell. Embedded in the viral envelope are proteins from the host cell, as well as 72 copies (on average) of a complex HIV protein that protrudes from the envelope surface. This protein, known as Env, consists of a cap made of three or four molecules called glycoprotein (gp)120 and a stem consisting of three or four gp41 molecules that anchor the structure in the viral envelope.

Viral Envelope

HIV has a diameter of 1/10,000 of a millimetre and is spherical in shape. The outer coat of the virus, known as the viral envelope, is composed of two layers of fatty molecules called lipids, taken from the membrane of a human cell when a newly formed virus particle buds from the cell. Embedded in the viral envelope are proteins from the host cell, as well as 72 copies (on average) of a complex HIV protein that protrudes from the envelope surface. This protein, known as Env, consists of a cap made of three or four molecules called glycoprotein (gp)120 and a stem consisting of three or four gp41 molecules that anchor the structure in the viral envelope.

Viral Envelope

HIV has a diameter of 1/10,000 of a millimetre and is spherical in shape. The outer coat of the virus, known as the viral envelope, is composed of two layers of fatty molecules called lipids, taken from the membrane of a human cell when a newly formed virus particle buds from the cell. Embedded in the viral envelope are proteins from the host cell, as well as 72 copies (on average) of a complex HIV protein that protrudes from the envelope surface. This protein, known as Env, consists of a cap made of three or four molecules called glycoprotein (gp)120 and a stem consisting of three or four gp41 molecules that anchor the structure in the viral envelope.

Viral Load

The number of viral particles in a sample of blood plasma. HIV viral load is increasingly employed as a surrogate marker for disease progression and can be measured by PCR and bDNA tests. Results are expressed as the number of HIV copies per milliliter.

Viral Load

The number of viral particles in a sample of blood plasma. HIV viral load is increasingly employed as a surrogate marker for disease progression and can be measured by PCR and bDNA tests. Results are expressed as the number of HIV copies per milliliter.

Viral Load

The number of viral particles in a sample of blood plasma. HIV viral load is increasingly employed as a surrogate marker for disease progression and can be measured by PCR and bDNA tests. Results are expressed as the number of HIV copies per milliliter.

Viral Reservoir

A pool of infected, resting, CD4 memory cells that can be reactivated. Replenishment of the reservoir of infected T-cells continues even without detectable plasma viremia.

Viral Reservoir

A pool of infected, resting, CD4 memory cells that can be reactivated. Replenishment of the reservoir of infected T-cells continues even without detectable plasma viremia.

Viral Reservoir

A pool of infected, resting, CD4 memory cells that can be reactivated. Replenishment of the reservoir of infected T-cells continues even without detectable plasma viremia.

Viral STDs

These STDs are caused by a virus and are incurable. If you have this type of STD, it stays in your body for life. The symptoms can come back (recur): Genital Herpes; Viral Hepatitis, HPV, HIV (virus that causes AIDS).

Viral STDs

These STDs are caused by a virus and are incurable. If you have this type of STD, it stays in your body for life. The symptoms can come back (recur): Genital Herpes; Viral Hepatitis, HPV, HIV (virus that causes AIDS).

Viral Turnover

The rate at which a virus dies and is regenerated.

Viral Turnover

The rate at which a virus dies and is regenerated.

Viral Turnover

The rate at which a virus dies and is regenerated.

Virion

A single, complete virus particle consisting of nucleic acid core and protein (capsid) coat.

Virologic response

The effect of treatment on viral load.

Virological relapse

When viral load can be measured after previously being undectectable.

Virology

The study of viruses and diseases caused by viruses.

Virulence

Refers to the ability of a virus to invade host tissues and the severity of disease produced.

Virus

A microscopic germ which reproduces within the living cells of the organism it infects.

Virus

A microscopic germ which reproduces within the living cells of the organism it infects.

Virus

A microscopic germ which reproduces within the living cells of the organism it infects.

Virus Families

Groups of viruses which differ based on host specificity or the ability to cause disease.

Viscera

Organs.

Visceral pain

Pain involving internal organs and hollow viscera.

Volatility

The tendency or ability of a liquid to quickly vaporize into the air. Examples of volatile liquids include alcohol and gasoline. Liquids that are volatile must be carefully dispensed and stored. This includes paying special attention to temperature.

Voluntary HIV testing

A client-initiated HIV test whereby the individual chooses to go to a testing facility/provider to find out his/her HIV status.

Voluntary HIV testing

A client-initiated HIV test whereby the individual chooses to go to a testing facility/provider to find out his/her HIV status.

Voluntary HIV testing and Counseling, VCT

Voluntary HIV testing and Counseling for HIV usually involves one counseling sessions prior to taking an HIV test known as pre-test counseling and one following the HIV test, when the results are given, often referred to as post-test counseling. Counseling focuses on the infection (HIV), the disease (AIDS), the test, and positive behavior change to protect against acquiring and/or transmitting HIV.

VPR

Viral protein R is a gene of HIV and also the protein produced by the VPR gene. VPR acts to increase the levels of HIV-specified proteins and accelerate viral replication.

VPU

Viral protein U is a gene of HIV and also the protein produced by that gene. DNA sequences that form the coding region for the HIV-1 regulatory protein VPU that greatly increases the export of virus particles from infected cells. The VPU genes are not present in HIV-2 or SIV.

VPX

A viral accessory protein required for productive in vitro infection of macrophages by simian immunodeficiency virus from sooty mangabey monkeys.

Vulnerability

Susceptibility to physical or emotional injury.

Vulnerability

Susceptibility to physical or emotional injury.

Vulva

The external female genitals. The labia, the clitoris and the vaginal opening are together known as the vulva (sometimes they are collectively referred to as female genitalia).

Vulva

The female external genitalia include the labia, clitoris and vestibule of the vagina.

VZV

Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is one of eight herpes viruses known to infect humans.

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W

Washout Period

The time it takes for a drug to be cleared from the body.

Wasting

Muscle and fat loss.

Wasting

Muscle and fat loss.

Wasting

Muscle and fat loss.

WBC Count

White Blood Cell Count

WBCs

White blood cells.

Western Blot

A laboratory test for specific antibodies to confirm repeatedly reactive results on the HIV ELISA or EIA tests. The Western blot uses an electrical field that separates out the various components by their molecular weight. This allows identification of antibodies to specific viral antigens, which show up as identifiable ""bands"" on a strip of test paper.

Wet dream

A wet dream (or nocturnal emission) is when a boy's penis becomes erect and he ejaculates while sleeping. This causes the boy's underwear or the bed to be a little wet when he wakes up. If a boy does not know about wet dreams, he could be worried or confused. Wet dreams are completely natural and normal. A boy cannot stop himself from having wet dreams.

Wet dream

A wet dream (or nocturnal emission) is when a boy's penis becomes erect and he ejaculates while sleeping. This causes the boy's underwear or the bed to be a little wet when he wakes up. If a boy does not know about wet dreams, he could be worried or confused. Wet dreams are completely natural and normal. A boy cannot stop himself from having wet dreams.

White blood cell

The cells of the immune system, including basophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes.

White blood cell

The cells of the immune system, including basophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes.

White blood cell

The cells of the immune system, including basophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes.

White blood cell

The cells of the immune system, including basophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes.

WHO

World Health Organization

WHO

World Health Organization

WHO analgesic ladder

The WHO guideline on the treatment of pain. Medication is prescribed on the basis of pain severity, moving up the steps of the ladder from non-opioid medications to opioids to stronger opioids, as the pain increases in intensity.

WHO analgesic ladder

The WHO guideline on the treatment of pain. Medication is prescribed on the basis of pain severity, moving up the steps of the ladder from non-opioid medications to opioids to stronger opioids, as the pain increases in intensity.

Whole-killed Virus Vaccine

A type of vaccine in which a complete inactivated virus is used to provoke an immune response.

Wild-type Virus

The normal, typical phenotype of a virus or other organism before genetic mutation, manipulation or in vitro replication takes place.

Window Period

The time between primary infection and the appearance of antibodies against an organism (seroconversion).

WISH

ILO program for Work Improvement for Safe Home (WISH). A model for improvement based on the idea of participatory action-oriented training. See also WIND.

Withdrawal

A condition that results from the abrupt discontinuation of a dependency-inducing drug, characterized by symptoms such as sweating, tremors, nausea, and pain.

Womb

The womb (also known as the uterus) is a hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman's lower abdomen between the bladder and the rectum. The narrow, lower portion of the uterus is the cervix; the broader, upper part is the corpus. The corpus is made up of two layers of tissue. In women of childbearing age, the inner layer of the uterus (endometrium) goes through a series of monthly changes known as the menstrual cycle. Each month, endometrial tissue grows and thickens in preparation to receive a fertilized egg. Menstruation occurs when this tissue is not used, disintegrates, and passes out through the vagina. The outer layer of the corpus (myometrium) is muscular tissue that expands during pregnancy to hold the growing fetus and contracts during labor to deliver the child.

Womb

The womb (also known as the uterus) is a hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman's lower abdomen between the bladder and the rectum. The narrow, lower portion of the uterus is the cervix; the broader, upper part is the corpus. The corpus is made up of two layers of tissue. In women of childbearing age, the inner layer of the uterus (endometrium) goes through a series of monthly changes known as the menstrual cycle. Each month, endometrial tissue grows and thickens in preparation to receive a fertilized egg. Menstruation occurs when this tissue is not used, disintegrates, and passes out through the vagina. The outer layer of the corpus (myometrium) is muscular tissue that expands during pregnancy to hold the growing fetus and contracts during labor to deliver the child.

Womb

The uterus.

Work - family interference

One form of work-family conflict; a type of role interference that occurs when work demands and responsibilities make it more difficult to fulfil family role responsibilities. See also Family - work interference.

Work practices

Procedures for carrying out specific tasks which, when followed, will ensure that a worker’s exposure to hazardous situations, substances or physical agents is controlled by the manner in which the work is carried out.

Work-related disease (long version)

For the category of work-related diseases, there is much more discussion regarding causal inference on the individual level in comparison with the classic occupational diseases, where there is ample evidence for the work-relatedness so that they can be attributed to work with confidence in individual patients. Criteria for the identification of work-related diseases on an individual basis for diagnostic purposes should preferably be based on evidence from epidemiological research. Examples are criteria developed for work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders and for work-related low-back pain. Lesage’s third category (see Occupational diseases) does not differ in essence from the work-related diseases but the odds ratios or relative risks found in epidemiological studies are lower. In several countries a relative risk of 2 (corresponding with an aetiological fraction of 50%) is maintained to distinguish diseases that can be recognized as occupational (and can be included on the list) from diseases that are not predominantly occupational.

Work-related disease (short version)

A disease for which the work or working conditions constitute the principal causal factor, or a disease for which the occupational factor may be one of several causal agents, or a disease for which the occupational factor may trigger or worsen an already existing disease, or a disease for which the risk may be increased by work or work-determined lifestyles.

Worker

A person who provides physical and/or mental labour and/or expertise to an employer or other person. This includes the concept of “employee,” which implies a formal employment contract, and also informal workers who provide labour and/or expertise outside of a formal contract relationship. In a larger enterprise or organization it includes managers and supervisors who may be considered part of “management” but are also workers. It also includes those who perform unpaid work, either in terms of forced labour or domestic work, and those who are self-employed.

Workers' health surveillance

Workers' health surveillance is a generic term which covers procedures and investigations to assess workers' health in order to detect and identify (early) signs of abnormality. The main aim is the prevention of occupational and work-related diseases and injuries. The results of surveillance should be used to protect and promote the health of the individual, collective health at the workplace, and the health of the exposed working population. Health assessment procedures may include, but are not limited to, medical examinations, biological monitoring, radiological examinations, questionnaires or a review of health records. Preferably the starting point is a risk assessment at the workplace to identify a health hazard or risk.

Working environment surveillance

See Surveillance of the working environment.

Workplace

Any place where physical and/or mental labour occurs, whether paid or unpaid. This includes formal worksites, private homes, vehicles, or outdoor locations on public or private property.

Workplace design

The planning of workplace environments, structures and equipment so that the potential for injury and illness is reduced or eliminated. See also Ergonomics.

Workplace inspection

A regular and careful check of a workplace or part of a workplace in order to identify health and safety hazards and to recommend corrective action. Workplace factors that have the potential to cause injury or illness to employees include: equipment, materials, processes or work activities, and the environment.

World Health Organization (WHO)

A United Nations organization concerned with worldwide public health.

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X

XDR-TB

Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis.

Xenotransplantation

The replacement of human organs such as the kidneys, hearts and lungs, with animal organs (i.e. baboons and pigs); this practice does carry the risk of introducing animal viruses into the human population.

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Y

Yeast

A unicellular chiefly ascomycetous fungus that has usually little or no mycelium. It typically reproduces asexually by budding.

Yeast

A unicellular, chiefly ascomycetous, fungus that has usually little or no mycelium. It typically reproduces asexually by budding.

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Z

Zinc fingers

Zinc fingers are chains of amino acids found in cellular protein which bind to DNA or messenger RNA; they are involved in binding and packaging viral RNA into new virions budding from an infected host's cell. The amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom that links two cysteines and two histidines. The spacing of the repeats results in a finger-like arrangement of protein loops which then interact with DNA. There are two zinc fingers in HIV's nucleocapside. The nucleocapsid protein and the zinc fingers also play a role during the process of reverse transcription. The goal of zinc finger inhibitors is to prevent the nucleocapsid part of the HIV gag protein (containing the zinc finger amino acid structures) from capturing and packaging new HIV genetic material into newly budding virions.

Zygote

A fertilized egg before it becomes an embryo.

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